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1.
提高籼稻愈伤组织再生频率的研究   总被引:102,自引:3,他引:99  
田文忠 《遗传学报》1994,21(3):215-221
为了提高籼稻愈伤组织的植株再生频率,研究了影响再生的各种因素,如:在诱导培养基或继代培养基中加细胞分裂素和萘乙酸(KT、BAP、玉米素或Zip1毫克/升),或加Thidiazuron(0.5毫克/升),以及愈及组织的部分干燥处理等。这些措施明显地提高籼稻愈伤组织的再生频率。结合使用这些处理可使TN1、IR72和IR64的愈伤组织再生植株频率较对照提高5-14倍。  相似文献
2.
水稻叶片的衰老与超氧物歧化酶活性及脂质过氧化作用的关系   总被引:101,自引:0,他引:101  
研究了从抽穗开花到籽粒成熟过程中,水稻植株顶部三片叶子的超氧物歧化酶(SOD),脂质过氧化产物丙二醛(MDA)含量及二磷酸核酮糖羧化酶活性的变化。实验结果表明:叶片的衰老伴随着 SOD 活性、RuBP 羧化酶活性及叶绿素含量的降低、丙二醛含量显著增高。分离了三个 SOD 的同工酶,证明为 Cu—Zn SOD。观察了 SOD 同工酶在叶片老化及酶液存放不同时间中的变化。讨论了叶片衰老过程中氧自由基对酶及质膜的损伤影响。  相似文献
3.
水稻不同品种对Cd吸收累积的差异和机理研究   总被引:91,自引:4,他引:87       下载免费PDF全文
吴启堂  陈卢  王广寿 《生态学报》1999,19(1):104-107
采用盆栽和水培试验研究了华南地区水稻的主要品种对Cd吸收累积的差异和引起差异的原因。盆栽试验结果表明,供试的20多个品种生长在同一污染土壤上,汕优63,汕优64等杂交稻,产量较高,但糙米Cd含量也较高,野奥丝苗,增城丝苗,黑糯等优质稻糙米重金属含量较低;常规稻则变幅较大,作物品种间差异可达1倍以上,在同一Cd浓度和营养液配方条件下的水培试验显示,与汕优63相比,糙米Cd含量较低的野奥丝苗其单位产量  相似文献
4.
Development and mapping of 2240 new SSR markers for rice (Oryza sativa L.).   总被引:86,自引:0,他引:86  
A total of 2414 new di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide non-redundant SSR primer pairs, representing 2240 unique marker loci, have been developed and experimentally validated for rice (Oryza sativa L.). Duplicate primer pairs are reported for 7% (174) of the loci. The majority (92%) of primer pairs were developed in regions flanking perfect repeats > or = 24 bp in length. Using electronic PCR (e-PCR) to align primer pairs against 3284 publicly sequenced rice BAC and PAC clones (representing about 83% of the total rice genome), 65% of the SSR markers hit a BAC or PAC clone containing at least one genetically mapped marker and could be mapped by proxy. Additional information based on genetic mapping and "nearest marker" information provided the basis for locating a total of 1825 (81%) of the newly designed markers along rice chromosomes. Fifty-six SSR markers (2.8%) hit BAC clones on two or more different chromosomes and appeared to be multiple copy. The largest proportion of SSRs in this data set correspond to poly(GA) motifs (36%), followed by poly(AT) (15%) and poly(CCG) (8%) motifs. AT-rich microsatellites had the longest average repeat tracts, while GC-rich motifs were the shortest. In combination with the pool of 500 previously mapped SSR markers, this release makes available a total of 2740 experimentally confirmed SSR markers for rice, or approximately one SSR every 157 kb.  相似文献
5.
干旱、盐和低温胁迫对水稻幼苗脯氨酸含量的影响   总被引:73,自引:1,他引:72       下载免费PDF全文
以三叶期的水稻幼苗为材料,研究了干旱(-0.6MPa PEG模拟)、盐(0.15ml/L NaCl)和低温(6℃)胁迫下,不同水稻品种脯氨酸积累的变化。结果表明,干旱、盐和低温胁迫下稻苗均可积累脯氨酸,且随着胁迫时间的处长而加剧。在同一胁迫条件下,耐性强的品种脯氨酸积累较少,而敏感品种脯氨酸积累则较多。脯氨酸的积累不宜作为稻苗抗逆性的筛选指标。  相似文献
6.
Abundance, polymorphism and genetic mapping of microsatellites in rice   总被引:71,自引:0,他引:71  
Dinucleotide microsatellites have been characterized and used as genetic markers in rice. Screening of a rice genomic library with poly(dG-dA)·(dC-dT) and poly(dG-dT)·(dC-dA) probes indicated that (GA)n repeats occurred, on average, once every 225 kb and (GT)n repeats once every 480 kb. DNA sequencing of ten randomly selected microsatellites indicated that the numbers of repeats ranged from 12 to 34 and that the patterns of microsatellites in rice were similar to those of humans and other mammals. Primers to these microsatellite loci as well as to four published microsatellite-containing sequences have been designed and degrees of polymorphism has been examined with 20 rice accessions. Multiple alleles, ranging from 5 to 11, have been observed at all the microsatellite loci in 20 rice accessions. Alleles specific to two cultivated subspecies, indica and japonica, were found in some microsatellite loci. Heterozygosity values of all the microsatellite markers were significantly higher than those of RFLP markers, based upon a parallel comparison. Ten microsatellite loci have been genetically mapped to four rice chromosomes. The genomic distribution of microsatellites appears to be random in rice.  相似文献
7.
南方水稻氮素吸收与利用效率的基因型差异及评价   总被引:70,自引:0,他引:70       下载免费PDF全文
 以南方籼型水稻(Oryza sativa)品种为试验材料进行大田试验,以探讨提高水稻氮素吸收与利用效率的基因型潜力。结果表明,除早季分蘖期氮素积累量、干物质生产效率和抽穗期氮素积累量以及晚季氮素运转效率外,各基因型氮素吸收与利用效率存在显著或极显著的差异,提高水稻氮素吸收与利用效率的基因型潜力很大。基因型生育期对其氮素吸收与利用效率产生重要影响,生育期较长的基因型其氮素吸收效率、稻谷和干物质生产效率以及农艺效率较高。杂交稻氮素的生产效率、农艺效率、回收效率和收获指数较常规稻高,但二系杂交稻并没有比三系杂交稻明显提高。通过排序方式对各基因型氮素吸收与利用效率进行评价的结果表明,不同氮素吸收与利用效率指标的排序以及同一指标早晚季的排序均存在较大差异。氮素吸收与利用效率经标准化后的综合排序可对各基因型的氮素吸收与利用效率进行综合评价,吻合系数则可较好地反映各基因型早晚季氮素吸收与利用效率的排序。  相似文献
8.
提高农杆菌转化水稻频率的研究   总被引:68,自引:1,他引:67  
以16种重要的籼稻和粳稻栽培品种为材料,研究了影响农杆菌转化水稻频率的有关因素,结果表明,CC培养基是绝大多数水稻全国组织的最适诱导与继代培养基;添加2.5-5mg/L ABA可以有效地改善水稻愈伤组织的质量,籼稻愈伤组织所需的筛选剂浓度低于粳稻愈伤组织所需的浓度,根癌农杆菌EHA105菌株对水稻的转化效果优于LBA4404和AGL1菌株的效果,头孢霉素对农杆菌的抑制效果优于羧苄青霉素的效果,共培养后进行适当的干燥处理既可增强脱菌效果,又可提高转化频率,应用我们所优化的农杆菌转化技术体系,获得了10个品种的水稻转基因植株。  相似文献
9.
Genetic analysis of rice grain quality   总被引:67,自引:0,他引:67  
 The inheritance of grain quality is more complicated than that of other agronomic traits in cereals due to epistasis, maternal and cytoplasmic effects, and the triploid nature of endosperm. In the present study, an established rice DH population derived from anther culture of an indica/japonica hybrid was used for genetic analysis of rice grain quality. A total of five parameters, amylose content (AC), alkali-spreading score (ASS), gel consistency (GC), percentage of grain with a white core (PGWC) and the square of the white core (SWC), were estimated for the DH lines and the parent varieties. For each parent, the value of each parameter was relatively stable in three locations, Beijing, Hangzhou and Chengdu, while the differences between the parents were significant for all five parameters. AC showed a bimodal distribution, and the distribution of ASS was skewed toward the value of JX17, while the other three parameters displayed continuous distributions among the DH lines with partially transgressive segregations. For AC, a minor and a major gene were found on chromosomes 5 and 6 respectively. The major gene, which should be an allele of wx, explained 91.9% of the total variation. For GC, two QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2 and 7 respectively. For ASS, a minor and a major gene were both located on chromosome 6. The major gene should be the same locus as the alkali degeneration gene (alk). Genetic linkage between alk and wx was found in QTL mapping. For PGWC, two QTLs were located on chromosomes 8 and 12. Only a minor QTL was found for SWC on chromosome 3. The results and the molecular markers presented here may be useful in rice breeding for grain quality improvement. Received: 24 April 1998 / Accepted: 13 August 1998  相似文献
10.
稻田CH4和N2O的排放及养萍和施肥的影响   总被引:65,自引:10,他引:55  
用箱法对我国东北稻田CH4和N2O排放进行观测研究表明,东北稻田的CH4排放通量比南方稻田小,平均日排放通量和生长季节排放总量分别为0.07和7.4g·m-2.稻田淹水期几乎没有N2O的净排放,但在非淹水期内却有大量N2O排放(平均通量59μgN2O·m-2·h-1).稻田养萍和施肥明显促进CH4和N2O排放.稻田CH4和N2O排放之间存在消长关系.制定稻田温室气体减排技术措施时应充分注意这一关系.  相似文献
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