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Summary We have cloned and sequenced all five members of the gene family for the small subunit (rbcS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT LA 1221 cherry line. Two of the five genes, designated Rbcs-1 and Rbcs-2, are present as single genes at individual loci. Three genes, designated Rbcs-3A, Rbcs-3B and Rbcs-3C, are organized in a tandem array within 10 kb at a third independent locus. The Rbcs-2 gene contains three introns; all the other members of the tomato gene family contain two introns. The coding sequence of Rbcs-1 differs by 14.0% from that of Rbcs-2 and by 13.3% from that of Rbcs-3 genes. Rbcs-2 shows 10.4% divergence from Rbcs-3. The exon and intron sequences of Rbcs-3A are identical to those of Rbcs-3C, and differ by 1.9% from those of Rbcs-3B. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggests that the five rbcS genes encode four different precursors, and three different mature polypeptides. S1 nuclease mapping of the 5 end of rbcS mRNAs revealed that the mRNA leader sequences vary in length from 8 to 75 nucleotides. Northern analysis using gene-specific oligonucleotide probes from the 3 non-coding region of each gene reveals a four to five-fold difference among the five genes in maximal steady-state mRNA levels in leaves.  相似文献
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Tadahiko Mae 《Plant and Soil》1997,196(2):201-210
Characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa) as a crop plant are briefly introduced, and the relationship between formation of yield potential and nitrogen (N) nutrition is described on the basis of studies using 15N as a tracer. In addition, the relationship between the leaf photosynthetic capacity and leaf N, and the factors limiting leaf photosynthesis under different growth conditions are reviewed. Finally, targets for improving rice yield potential are discussed with a focus on the role of increased photosynthesis efficiency in relation to leaf N status and the photosynthetic components in the leaves.  相似文献
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The photosynthesis–nitrogen relationship is significantly different among species. Photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf nitrogen, termed as photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), has been considered an important leaf trait to characterise species in relation to their leaf economics, physiology, and strategy. In this review, I discuss (1) relations between PNUE and species ecology, (2) physiological causes and (3) ecological implications of the interspecific difference in PNUE. Species with a high PNUE tend to have high growth rates and occur in disturbed or high productivity habitats, while those with a low PNUE occur in stressful or low productivity habitats. PNUE is an important leaf trait that correlates with other leaf traits, such as leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf life span, irrespective of life form, phylogeny, and biomes. Various factors are involved in the interspecific difference. In particular, nitrogen allocation within leaves and the mesophyll conductance for CO2 diffusion are important. To produce tough leaves, plants need to allocate more biomass and nitrogen to make thick cell walls, leading to a reduction in the mesophyll conductance and in nitrogen allocation to the photosynthetic apparatus. Allocation of biomass and nitrogen to cell walls may cause the negative relationship between PNUE and LMA. Since plants cannot maximise both PNUE and leaf toughness, there is a trade-off between photosynthesis and persistence, which enables the existence of species with various leaf characteristics on the earth.  相似文献
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Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) with an antisense gene directed against the mRNA of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit was used to determine the kinetic properties of Rubisco in vivo. The leaves of these plants contained only 34% as much Rubisco as those of the wild type, but other photosynthetic components were not significantly affected. Consequently, the rate of CO2 assimilation by the antisense plants was limited by Rubisco activity over a wide range of CO2 partial pressures. Unlike in the wild-type leaves, where the rate of regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate limited CO2 assimilation at intercellular partial pressures above 400 ubar, photosynthesis in the leaves of the antisense plants responded hyperbolically to CO2, allowing the kinetic parameters of Rubisco in vivo to be inferred. We calculated a maximal catalytic turnover rate, kcat, of 3.5+0.2 mol CO2·(mol sites)–1·s–1 at 25° C in vivo. By comparison, we measured a value of 2.9 mol CO2·(mol sites)–1·–1 in vitro with leaf extracts. To estimate the Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 and O2, the rate of CO2 assimilation was measured at 25° C at different intercellular partial pressures of CO2 and O2. These measurements were combined with carbon-isotope analysis (13C/12C) of CO2 in the air passing over the leaf to estimate the conductance for transfer of CO2 from the substomatal cavities to the sites of carboxylation (0.3 mol·m–2·s–1·bar–1) and thus the partial pressure of CO2 at the sites of carboxylation. The calculated Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 and O2 were 259 ±57 bar (8.6±1.9M) and 179 mbar (226 M), respectively, and the effective Michaelis-Menten constant for CO2 in 200 mbar O2 was 549 bar (18.3 M). From measurements of the photocompensation point (* = 38.6 ubar) we estimated Rubisco's relative specificity for CO2, as opposed to O2 to be 97.5 in vivo. These values were dependent on the size of the estimated CO2-transfer conductance.Abbreviations and Symbols A CO2-assimilation rate - gw conductance for CO2 transfer from the substomatal cavities to the sites of carboxylation - Kc, Ko Michaelis-Menten constants for carboxylation, oxygenation of Rubisco - kcat Vcmax/[active site] - O partial pressure of O2 at the site of carboxylation - pc partial pressure of CO2 at the site of carboxylation - pi intercellular CO2 partial pressure - Rd day respiration (non-photorespiratory CO2 evolution) - Rubisco ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase - RuBP ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate - Sc/o relative specificity factor for Rubisco - SSu small subunit of Rubisco - Vcmax, Vomax maximum rates of Rubisco carboxylation, oxygenation - * partial pressure of CO2 in the chloroplast at which photorespiratory CO2 evolution equals the rate of carboxylation  相似文献
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Gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, and contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, RuBPCO), and antioxidant enzymes were characterized in the fully expanded 6th leaves in rice seedlings grown on either complete (CK) or on nitrogen-deficient nutrient (N-deficiency) solutions during a 20-chase period. Compared with the control plants, the lower photosynthetic capacity at saturation irradiance (P max) was accompanied by an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), indicating that in N-deficient plants the decline in P max was not due to stomatal limitation but due to the reduced carboxylation efficiency. The fluorescence parameters PS2, Fv/Fm, electron transport rate (ETR), and qP showed the same tendency as P max in N-deficient plants. Correspondingly, a higher qN paralleled the rise of the ratio of carotenoid (Car) to Chl contents. However, Fv/Fm was still diminished, suggesting that photoinhibition did occur in the photosystem 2 (PS2) reaction centres. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes on a fresh mass basis were gradually lowered, leading to the aggravation of membrane lipid peroxidation with the proceeding N-deficiency. The accumulation of malonyldialdehyde resulted in the lessening of Chl and soluble protein content. Analyses of regression showed PS2 excitation pressure (1 - qP) was linearly correlated with the content of Chl and inversely with soluble protein (particularly RuBPCO) content. There was a lag phase in the increase of PS2 excitation pressure compared to the decrease of RuBPCO content. Therefore, the increased excitation pressure under N-deficiency is probably the result of saturation of the electron transport chain due to the limitation of the use of reductants by the Calvin cycle. Rice plants responded to N-deficiency and high irradiance by decreasing light-harvesting capacity and by increasing thermal dissipation of absorbed energy.  相似文献
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Engelbert Weis 《Planta》1981,151(1):33-39
Photosynthetic CO2 fixation rates in leaves and intact chloroplasts of spinach measured at 18°–20° C are substantially decreased by pretreatment at temperatures exceeding 20° C. Mild heating which causes 80% inhibition of CO2 fixation does not affect phosphoglyceroacid reduction and causes increases in the ATP/ADP ratio and the light-induced transthylakoid proton gradient. The inactivation of the CO2 fixation is completely reversible with half-times of recovery in the order of 15–20 min. Comparison of steady-state patterns of 14C labeled Calvin cycle intermediates of heat-treated and control samples reveals a large increase in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate/phosphoglyceroacid ratio and a large decrease in the phosphoglyceroacid/triosephosphate ratio. It is concluded that inactivation of CO2 fixation occurring at elevated temperatures is caused by inhibition of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.39). Measurements of light-induced light scattering changes of thylakoids and of the light-induced electrochromic absorption shift show that these signals are affected by mild heating in a way which is strictly correlated with the inactivation of the CO2 fixation. It is proposed that the function of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in vivo requires a form of activation that involves properties of the thylakoid membrane which are affected by the heat treatment. The fact that these changes in thylakoid membrane properties and of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity are already affected at elevated temperatures which can still be considered physiological, and the reversible nature of these changes, suggest that they may play a role in temperature regulation of the overall photosynthetic process.Abbreviations 9-AA 9-aminoacridine - DMO 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione - FBP fructose-1,6-bisphosphate - HEPES N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine N-2-ethane sulfonic acid - HMP hexose monophosphates - PGA 3-phosphoglycerate - PMP pentose monophosphates - RuBP ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate - SBP seduheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate - TP triose monophosphates  相似文献
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