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1.
四川大头茶在不同群落中的遗传分化及适合度成分   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
研究了四川大头茶在 3个群落中的遗传分化和适合度成分。 12个引物的 RAPD分析表明 ,仅有 10 %左右的遗传多样性存在于种群间。四川大头茶纯林结实率 (31.86 % )显著高于针阔混交林 (2 2 .5 3% )和常绿阔叶林 (2 4 .5 2 % )。每果种子数和每果种子均重各种群间差异均显著 ,每果种子数和每果种子均重分别为常绿阔叶林 (2 9.5 0 ,0 .0 15 4 g) ,四川大头茶纯林 (2 8.39,0 .0 172 g) ,针阔混交林 (2 7.4 4 ,0 .0 195 g) ,表明二者间存在着负耦联关系 (trade off)。而以 R =∑lxbx表示的适合度却以常绿阔叶林最大  相似文献
2.
对虾杆状病毒病暴发式大流行的生态机理初步研究   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
孙刚  国际翔  王振堂  王娓 《生态学报》1999,19(2):283-286
初步探讨中国和沿海和对虾杆状病毒病暴发式大流行的生理机理。分析了病毒病特性与对虾免疫功能的关系;病毒在虾池间的传染机制。着重说明了虾病的群体感染过程,给出模式化的群体传染模型,简要阐述了与虾病相关的社会生态经济问题。  相似文献
3.
The fitness advantage provided by caulinary domatia to myrmecophytes has never been directly demonstrated because most myrmecophytic species do not present any individual variation in the presence of domatia and the removal of domatia from entire plants is a destructive process. The semi-myrmecophytic tree, Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae), is an ideal species to investigate the selective advantage conferred by domatia because within the same population, some plants are devoid of domatia while others bear them. Several ant species patrol the plant for extra-floral nectar. Fruit production was found to be enhanced in domatia-bearing trees compared to trees devoid of domatia independent of the ant associate. However, this domatium effect was most conspicuous for trees associated with the populous and nomadic ant, Technomyrmex albipes. This species is a frequent associate of H. brunonis, inhabiting its domatia or building carton nests on it. Ant exclusion experiments revealed that T. albipes was the only ant to provide efficient anti-herbivore protection to the leaves of its host tree. Measures of ant activity as well as experiments using caterpillars revealed that the higher efficiency of T. albipes was due to its greater patrolling density and consequent shorter lag time in attacking the larvae. T. albipes also provided efficient anti-herbivore protection to flowers since fruit initiation was greater on ant-patrolled inflorescences than on those from which ants were excluded. We therefore demonstrated that caulinary domatia provide a selective advantage to their host-plant and that biotic defence is potentially the main fitness benefit mediated by domatia. However, it is not the sole advantage. The general positive effect of domatia on fruit set in this ant–plant could reflect other benefits conferred by domatia-inhabitants, which are not restricted to ants in this myrmecophyte, but comprise a large diversity of other invertebrates. Our results indicate that mutualisms enhance the evolution of myrmecophytism.  相似文献
4.
Human susceptibility to obesity is an unusual phenomenon amongst animals. An evolutionary analysis, identifying factors favouring the capacity for fat deposition, may aid in the development of preventive public health strategies. This article considers the proximate causes, ontogeny, fitness value and evolutionary history of human fat deposition. Proximate causes include diet composition, physical activity level, feeding behaviour, endocrine and genetic factors, psychological traits, and exposure to broader environmental factors. Fat deposition peaks during late gestation and early infancy, and again during adolescence in females. As in other species, human fat stores not only buffer malnutrition, but also regulate reproduction and immune function, and are subject to sexual selection. Nevertheless, our characteristic ontogenetic pattern of fat deposition, along with relatively high fatness in adulthood, contrasts with the phenotype of other mammals occupying the tropical savannah environment in which hominids evolved. The increased value of energy stores in our species can be attributed to factors increasing either uncertainty in energy availability, or vulnerability to that uncertainty. Early hominid evolution was characterised by adaptation to a more seasonal environment, when selection would have favoured general thriftiness. The evolution of the large expensive brain in the genus Homo then favoured increased energy stores in the reproducing female, and in the offspring in early life. More recently, the introduction of agriculture has had three significant effects: exposure to regular famine; adaptation to a variety of local niches favouring population-specific adaptations; and the development of social hierarchies which predispose to differential exposure to environmental pressures. Thus, humans have persistently encountered greater energy stress than that experienced by their closest living relatives during recent evolution. The capacity to accumulate fat has therefore been a major adaptive feature of our species, but is now increasingly maladaptive in the modern environment where fluctuations in energy supply have been minimised, and productivity is dependent on mechanisation rather than physical effort. Alterations to the obesogenic environment are predicted to play a key role in reducing the prevalence of obesity.  相似文献
5.
Distinguishing the roles of propagule limitation and niche requirements in controlling plant species distributions is important for understanding community structure, invasion, and restoration. We used species distribution models based on plant and environmental survey data to assess the strength of species' affinities for particular environmental conditions. We hypothesized that species with statistically detectable environmental requirements were primarily niche-limited, while species with weak habitat affinities were primarily propagule-limited. We tested this hypothesis via a seeding experiment in which we compared species' reproductive fitness in occupied and unoccupied sites. Species that appeared to be niche-limited based on distribution models had lower fitness when planted in unoccupied sites, while species that models suggested were propagule-limited had equivalent fitness when planted in occupied and unoccupied sites. Our results demonstrate that within a single community, both species limited primarily by niche availability or primarily by propagule availability can be identified using observational data.  相似文献
6.
Summary The potential for changes in allele frequencies in yeast populations by selection was examined. Cells from the wine yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Montrachet) were grown over a large number of generations using two different culturing techniques, each with two variations: serial transfers on WLN agar plates with and without UV irradiation, and continuous culture in autoclaved and in filter-sterilized grape must. A low frequency of variant isozyme patterns was found in samples taken at the end of the experiment. Growth rates in must and on agar plates were also examined, and it was found that all samples were faster-growing than the original strain, to varying degrees. Applications for the selection system developed are discussed.  相似文献
7.
Females of the afrotropical mosquito species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and An. quadriannulatus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied for the effect of blood meal size and the frequency of blood feeding on reproductive development during the first gonotrophic cycle. To standardize the blood meals, meals were administered by enema in some experiments. The effects of insemination, mosquito size, and metabolic reserves at emergence on egg development were also investigated. Maximum insemination was reached after seven days, varying from 62% in An. quadriannulatus to 95% in An. gambiae and was significantly different (P<0.05) between the two species. Insemination had no effect on feeding success. Females of An. quadriannulatus were significantly larger than An. gambiae females (mean wing size 2.90 ±0.01 mm versus 2.82 ±0.01 mm), but the protein, glycogen, and lipid content of newly emerged females of the two species were not significantly different. Without a blood meal, larger females of both species were significantly more likely to develop oocytes up to Christopher's stage II. With one blood meal, 27% of An. gambiae became pre-gravid and 73% matured eggs. In contrast, all An. quadriannulatus females remained in the pre-gravid stage following ingestion of one blood meal. Vitellogenesis was significantly reduced in smaller-sized pre-gravid An. quadriannulatus compared to larger individuals. When given the opportunity to feed up to three times on three successive days, all females of An. gambiae matured eggs but only 85% of An. quadriannulatus did so. When 1 l of human blood was administered by enema, none of the females of either species developed eggs. With a single enema of 1.5 l of human blood, only An. gambiae developed eggs. A similar result was observed with 1 l and 1.5 l enemas of bovine blood although some An. gambiae also developed eggs with 1 l of blood. Anopheles quadriannulatus developed eggs only when given two 1 l enemas on successive days. However, the percentage of females developing eggs was significantly lower than that of An. gambiae. The implications of these differences in reproductive strategy are discussed in the light of behavioural traits in the field.  相似文献
8.
, and 1992. Delayed mating and the reproductive fitness of Aponomma hydrosauri (Acari: Ixodidae). International Journal for Parasitology 22: 1197–1200. This study examines whether delayed mating influences the reproductive fitness of female reptile ticks, Aponomma hydrosauri. Delayed mating was induced by the prevention of male attachment to hosts for 20 or 40 days after females had been attached. The results showed that delayed mating had no significant influence on the number of viable progeny produced by female ticks. This may represent an important advantage for colonizing Ap. hydrosauri females in marginal population areas, particularly at parapatric boundaries.  相似文献
9.
Pitch pine, Pinus rigida Mill., is a rare species in Canada, existing as a disjunct population in the St. Lawrence River Valley in eastern Ontario and two northern outlier stands in southern Quebec along Canada's southern border with the United States. Reproductive and genetic characteristics of these small, scattered stands were investigated to develop a foundation for management and restoration in the event of range expansion northwards under anticipated climate warming. Seed yields and seed quality appear to be comparable to other eastern conifers, and to pitch pine at the center of its geographic range. For seed and seedling growth traits, most of the variation was attributable to differences among trees within stands and, to a lesser extent, among stands within a population; whereas the population effect was non-significant. For reproductive traits, such as numbers of filled and empty seeds per cone, reproductive efficiency, and inbreeding estimates, high levels of variation (ranging from 26% to 33%) were found among stands, suggesting that stand structural features, such as stand size and tree density within stands, play an important role in pollination environment and overall reproductive success. Estimates of genetic diversity at 32 allozyme gene loci indicate that these small, isolated stands have maintained relatively high levels of genetic diversity compared with populations at the center of its geographic range, and also relative to other widely dispersed eastern conifers. The relatively high levels of viable seed production and genetic diversity in native pitch pine populations indicate that native Canadian populations may be suitable seed sources for species restoration and range expansion in Canada.  相似文献
10.
Littorina brevicula (Philippi) is an abundant herbivorous gastropod species inhabiting intertidal zones of the north-western Pacific and has internal fertilization with planktonic eggs and a larval stage. A population of L. brevicula on a shore in Amakusa, Japan, splits into an upper and a mid shore sub-population during the mating season in winter, while all individuals occurred in the upper zone in summer. Transplant and recapture experiments have shown that snails from each sub-population have a distinct pattern of seasonal migration, suggesting that the snail population consists of two behavioral morphs. To explore the relationship between migration pattern and life history characteristics in the snails of the two migration morphs, monthly quantitative samplings and a mark-release and recapture survey were carried out for the population of L. brevicula over a 1-year period. In autumn, some of the adults migrated downward to the mid shore and formed the lower sub-population from October to April. Migration between the upper and lower sub-populations was minimal from December to February, when L. brevicula copulate actively. The shell growth rates of the snails in the lower zone were slightly higher than those in the upper zone, but the shell width of females was not a good predictor of the number of mature ova they contained. The number of mature ova was not significantly different between the females of the two migration morphs. In addition, the mortality of marked snails did not differ significantly between the upper and lower zones. Thus, no evidence was obtained to indicate a difference in the reproductive fitness between the two migration morphs.  相似文献
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