首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   60篇
  国内免费   1篇
  完全免费   3篇
  2012年   1篇
  2010年   3篇
  2009年   8篇
  2008年   7篇
  2007年   9篇
  2006年   4篇
  2005年   6篇
  2004年   4篇
  2003年   2篇
  2002年   3篇
  2001年   4篇
  2000年   2篇
  1998年   3篇
  1996年   2篇
  1995年   2篇
  1994年   1篇
  1991年   1篇
  1986年   1篇
  1985年   1篇
排序方式: 共有64条查询结果,搜索用时 78 毫秒
1.
林下和林窗内绢毛匍匐委陵菜的克隆生长和克隆形态   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
 为了验证绢毛匍匐委陵菜(Potentilla reptans var. sericophylla)林窗和林下种群间的行为差异是完全由表型可塑性引起,还是局部分化的结果,将生长在北京东灵山油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)林林窗和林下的绢毛匍匐委陵菜,进行生境间的交互移植-重植野外生态实验。研究结果表明,实验植物的叶片长度、叶片宽度、叶柄长度和匍匐茎节间长度等克隆形态特征在两生境间无差异。两个来源的植株,其基株生物量、基株分株数和基株匍匐茎总长度等克隆生长特征在林下生境中都比在林窗生境中小,表现出显著的可塑性。所研究的克隆形态特征和克隆生长特征及其可塑性在不同生境来源的实验植物间没有差异。绢毛匍匐委陵菜克隆形态特征和克隆生长特征及其可塑性在林下和林窗生境间没有发生局部分化,林窗为其较适生境,克隆生长特征的可塑性对绢毛匍匐委陵菜利用生境异质性可能具有重要意义  相似文献
2.
Conceptual issues in local adaptation   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
3.
A genetic interpretation of ecologically dependent isolation   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Hybrids may suffer a reduced fitness both because they fall between ecological niches (ecologically dependent isolation) and as a result of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities between the parental genomes (ecologically independent isolation). Whereas genetic incompatibilities are common to all theories of speciation, ecologically dependent isolation is a unique prediction of the ecological model of speciation. This prediction can be tested using reciprocal transplants in which the fitness of various genotypes is evaluated in both parental habitats. Here we expand a quantitative genetic model of Lynch (1991) to include two parental environments. We ask whether a sufficient experimental design exists for detecting ecologically dependent isolation. Analysis of the model reveals that by using both backcrosses in both parental environments, environment-specific additive genetic effects can be estimated while correcting for any intrinsic genetic isolation. Environment-specific dominance effects can also be estimated by including the F1 and F2 in the reciprocal transplant. In contrast, a reciprocal transplant comparing only F1s or F2s to the parental species cannot separate ecologically dependent from intrinsic genetic isolation. Thus, a reduced fitness of F1 or F2 hybrids relative to the parental species is not sufficient to demonstrate ecological speciation. The model highlights the importance of determining the contribution of genetic and ecological mechanisms to hybrid fitness if inferences concerning speciation mechanisms are to be made.  相似文献
4.
Summary Adaptive variation can exist at a variety of scales in biological systems, including among species, among local populations of a single species and among individuals within a single population. Trophic or resource polymorphisms in fishes are a good example of the lowest level of this hierarchy. In lakes without bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) can be trophically polymorphic, including a planktivorous limnetic form found in the pelagic habitat, in addition to the usual benthic form found in the littoral zone. In this paper we examine the degree to which morphological differences between the two forms are caused by genetic differences versus phenotypic plasticity. Adults from pelagic and littoral sites in Paradox Lake, NY, were bred separately and their progeny were raised in cages both in the open water and shallow water habitats of an artificial pond. The experimental design permitted two tests of genetic differences between the breeding stocks (in open and shallow water cages, respectively) and two tests of phenotypic plasticity (in the limnetic and benthic offspring, respectively). Limnetic progeny were more fusiform than benthic progeny raised in the same habitat. In addition, progeny of both stocks displayed limnetic-type characteristics when raised in the open water and benthic-type characteristics in the shallow water. Thus, genetic differences and phenotypic plasticity both contributed to the trophic polymorphism. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic differentiation accounted for 53 and 14%, respectively, of the variation in morphology. This study addresses the nature of subtle phenotypic differences among individuals from a single population that is embedded within a complex community, a condition that is likely to be the norm for most natural populations, as opposed to very large differences that have evolved in relatively few populations that reside in species-poor environments.  相似文献
5.
6.
Microevolution in biological control: Mechanisms, patterns, and processes   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2  
Microevolution may determine both the safety and efficacy of classical biological control. Despite a growing body of literature, there are several key unanswered questions regarding the role of evolution in biological control: (1) How common is local adaptation of natural enemies to their hosts or the environment in the native range? How critical is it for success of biological control to find locally adapted agents for importation? (2) Does adaptive evolution following introductions play an important role in biological control? (3) Do introductions of biological control agents impose bottlenecks in population size that reduce genetic variation, and is reduced genetic variation associated with low fitness and poor performance? (4) How great is the risk of evolution of host range of biological control agents? (5) What is the risk of target pests evolving resistance to biological control agents? If pests evolve increased resistance, will biological control agents evolve mechanisms to overcome that resistance? Here, we review the four fundamental processes of microevolution, and discuss how they interact in the context of biological control. We discuss our current state of knowledge regarding the outstanding questions, highlight the types of experiments that can address them, and suggest ways to use microevolution to define risks, and enhance efficacy and safety of biological control.  相似文献
7.
Plant polyploid complexes provide useful model systems for distinguishing between adaptive and nonadaptive causes of parapatric distributions in closely related lineages. Polyploidy often gives rise to morphological and physiological changes, which may be adaptive to different environments, but separate distributions may also be maintained by reproductive interference caused by postzygotic reproductive isolation. Here, we test the hypothesis that diploid and descendent polyploid races of the wind-pollinated herb Mercurialis annua , which are found in parapatry over an environmental gradient in northeast Spain, are differentiated in their ecophysiology and life history. We also ask whether any such differences represent adaptations to their different natural environments. On the basis of a series of reciprocal transplant experiments in the field, and experiments under controlled conditions, we found that diploid and polyploid populations of M. annua are ecologically differentiated, but that they do not show local adaptation; rather, the diploids have higher fitness than the polyploids across both diploid- and polyploid-occupied regions. In fact, diploids are currently displacing polyploids by advancing south on two separate fronts in Spain, and previous work has shown that this displacement is being driven to a large extent by asymmetrical pollen swamping. Our results here suggest that ecophysiological superiority of the diploids may also be contributing to their expansion.  相似文献
8.
Geographic variation in phenotypes can result from proximate environmental effects as well as from underlying genetic factors. Reciprocal transplant experiments, in which organisms are moved from one area to another, offer a powerful technique to partition the effects of these two factors. However, many studies that have utilized this technique have focused on the post-hatching organism only and ignored potential effects of environmental influences acting during embryonic development. We examined the phenotypic responses of hatchling scincid lizards ( Lampropholis guichenoti ) incubated in the laboratory under thermal regimes characteristic of natural nests in two study areas in southeastern Australia. Although the sites were less than 120 km apart, lizards from these two areas differed in thermal regimes of natural nests, and in hatchling phenotypes (morphology, locomotor performance). We incubated eggs from each area under the thermal regimes typical of both sites. Some of the traits we measured (e.g. hatchling mass and snout-vent length) showed little or no phenotypic plasticity in response to differences in incubation conditions, whereas other traits (e.g. incubation period, tail length, inter-limb length, body shape, locomotor performance) were strongly influenced by the thermal regime experienced by the embryo. Thus, a significant proportion of the geographic variation in morphology and locomotor performance of hatchling lizards may be directly induced by differences in nest temperatures rather than by genetic divergence. We suggest that future studies using the reciprocal transplant design should consider environmental influences on all stages of the life-history, including embryonic development as well as post-hatching life.  相似文献
9.
We tested for adaptive differentiation between two natural populations of Impatiens capensis from sites known to differ in selection on plasticity to density. We also determined the degree to which plasticity to density within a site was correlated with plastic responses of experimental immigrants to foreign sites. Inbred lines, derived from natural populations in an open-canopy site and a woodland site, were planted reciprocally in both original sites at naturally occurring high densities and at low density. The density manipulation represents environmental variation typically experienced within the site of a given population, and the transplant manipulation represents environmental differences between sites of different populations. Internode elongation, meristem allocation, leaf length, flowering date, and total lifetime fitness were measured. Genotypes originating in the open site, where selection favored plasticity of first internode length and flowering time (Donohue et al. 2000a), were more plastic in those characters than genotypes originating from the woodland site, where plasticity was maladaptive. Therefore, these two populations appear to have responded to divergent selection on plasticity. Plasticity to density strongly resembled plasticity to site differences for many characters, suggesting that similar environmental factors elicit plasticity both to density and to overhead canopy. Thus, plasticity that evolved in response to density variation within a site influenced phenotypic expression in the foreign site. Plastic responses to site caused immigrants from foreign populations to resemble native genotypes more closely. In particular, immigrants from the open site converged toward the selectively favored early-flowering phenotype of native genotypes in the woodland site, thereby reducing potential fitness differences between foreign and native genotypes. However, because genotypes from the woods population were less plastic than genotypes from the sun population, phenotypic differences between populations were greatest in the open site at low density. Therefore, population differences in plasticity can cause genotypes from foreign populations to be more strongly selected against in some environments than in others. However, genetic constraints and limits to plasticity prevented complete convergence of immigrants to the native phenotype in any environment.  相似文献
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号