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1.
Abnormalities of testicular descent   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Testicular descent occurs in two stages. The transabdominal phase (8–15 weeks) is controlled by enlargement of the caudal genito-inguinal ligament (gubernaculum) and regression of the cranial ligament. Insulin-like 3 from the Leydig cell appears to be the prime stimulator of gubernacular growth, augmented by Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone. Testosterone causes regression of the cranial ligament. The inguinoscrotal phase (25–35 weeks) requires the migration of the gubernaculum from the groin to the scrotum; this migration is guided by the genito-femoral nerve releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide under the influence of androgen. The neonatal gonocyte transforms into a type A spermatogonium at 3–12 months of age, a step that is now known to be crucial for subsequent fertility, as the stem cells for spermatogenesis are created in this structure. This step is blocked in undescended testis and, hence, orchidopexy is currently recommended at 6–12 months of age. Congenital cryptorchidism is caused by the failure of gubernacular migration to the scrotum (1%–2%) but we now recognise that another 1%–2% of boys have acquired cryptorchidism, secondary to the failure of spermatic cord elongation with growth of the boy. These latter cases come to operation at 5–10 years of age. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, as hormonal therapy has not been proven to be effective, presumably because testicular descent is a complex anatomical mechanism.  相似文献
2.
Geng F  Shi BZ  Yuan YF  Wu XZ 《Cell research》2004,14(5):423-433
It is well documented that the glycosylation of E-cadherin is correlated with cancer metastasis, but whether E-cadherin could be core fucosylated remains largely unknown. We found that E-cadherin was core fucosylated in highly metastatic lung cancer cells while absent in lowly metastatic lung cancer cells. Sinceα-1,6 Fucosyltransferase (α-1,6 FucT) is known to catalyze the reaction of core fucosylation, we investigated the biological function of core fucosylation on E-cadherin by α-1,6 FucT targeted RNAi and transfecting α-1,6 FucT expression vector. As a result, calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin was strengthened with the reduction of core fucosylation on E-cadherin after RNAi and was weakened with the elevated core fucosylation on E-cadherin after α-1,6 FucT over expression. Our data indicated that α-1,6 FucT could regulate E-cadherin mediated cell adhesion and thus play an important role in cancer development and progression. Computermodeling showed that core fucosylation on E-cadherin could significantly impair three-dimensional conformation of N-glycan on E-cadherin and produce conformational asymmetry so as to suppress the function of E-cadherin. Furthermore, the relationship between the expression of core fucosylated E-cadherin and clinicopathological background of lung cancer patients was explored in lung cancer tissue of patients. It turns out to demonstrate that core fucosylated E-cadherin could serve as a promising prognostic indicator for lung cancer patients.  相似文献
3.
 Interleukin(IL)-2 is a T helper (Th) 1 type cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in antitumour immune responses. In this study, the prognostic significance of serum IL-2 levels was investigated in 60 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. IL-2 serum levels were determined before chemotherapy, at the end of chemotherapy and during follow-up, using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay kit. The results were analysed according to the response to therapy and were used to generate a model predicting overall survival and time to treatment failure. All 60 patients were shown to have higher IL-2 serum levels than controls (P < 0.0001). Stage IV patients had significantly lower IL-2 levels than stage III patients (P < 0.0001), although they were still significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). It is interesting that, when patients were divided into responders and non-responders according to the response to therapy, the former were shown to have significantly higher pre-chemotherapy levels than the latter (P < 0.0001). Moreover, a further significant increase in IL-2 serum levels (P=0.004) and a significant decrease (P < 0.0001) were shown in responders and non-responders, respectively at the end of the therapy. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, both overall survival and time to treatment failure were shown to be affected by the mean pathological levels of IL-2. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of the serum level of IL-2 was confirmed by the stepwise regression analysis. In conclusion, determination of pre-treatment IL-2 serum levels was shown to be of independent prognostic utility in patients with advanced NSCLC; therefore, its possible use for prediction of outcome is proposed. Received: 16 March 2000 / Accepted: 27 July 2000  相似文献
4.
Introduction Recent studies have indicated that the cytokines produced by CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) cells are critically important in antitumour immunity and perhaps clinical outcome. From this perspective, we investigated the immunocompetence of patients with previously untreated cancer of the oesophagus or oesophagogastric junction (OGJ) in relation to stage of disease and postoperative survival.Methods Blood samples were taken prior to surgery from 32 patients with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or OGJ. Ten healthy volunteers served as normal controls. T-cell and monocyte subpopulations were determined using flow cytometry. Monocyte as well as Th1- and Th2-lymphocyte cytokine levels were assessed in stimulated whole blood cultures.Results Absolute T-cell and monocyte (subset) counts as well as monocyte cytokine levels were similar among patients and controls. Production of Th1-type cytokines was higher in patients than in controls (IFN-, p=0.01; IL-2, p=0.05), whereas Th2-type cytokine levels were comparable (IL-4, p=0.5; IL-13, p=0.3). T-cell CD4+/CD8+ ratios decreased as pTNM stage worsened (stage I/II vs stage III/IV, p=0.009). Of all measured immunological parameters, only IL-2 production significantly affected both overall survival (p=0.015) and disease-free survival (p=0.0062). High IL-2 levels corresponded with a favourable prognosis.Conclusions Patients awaiting surgery for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or oesophagogastric junction demonstrated a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance—in favour of Th1—compared with healthy volunteers. The ability of T cells to produce IL-2 was related to survival indicating a crucial role of Th1-type cells in antitumour immunosurveillance.  相似文献
5.
土壤大孔隙流研究现状与发展趋势   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
大孔隙流方面的研究是土壤水运动机理由均质走向非均质领域的标志而成为土壤物理学学目前的研究热点,研究成果对评估土壤污染物风险、确定灌溉、施肥、以及种植作物方案等提供理论依据。围绕大孔隙的分类标准、大孔隙流的影响因素、土壤大孔隙流量化方法3个方面综合介绍了土壤大孔隙流的研究现状,指出目前研究中存在的不足以及今后的发展趋势。旨在为深入研究大孔隙流提供新的思路及参考。  相似文献
6.
黏附分子CD24在肿瘤转移中作用   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
CD24属糖基磷脂酰肌醇锚蛋白。作为P-选择素配体的黏附分子,其可调节B细胞发育和神经发生。研究显示,CD24高表达在多种肿瘤细胞表面,参与肿瘤的发生发展。已通过体外试验和动物模型证实CD24对多种肿瘤生长和转移相关的肿瘤细胞特性具有调节作用;结合人肿瘤组织研究显示,CD24和乳腺癌、前列腺癌、胰腺癌及肝内胆管癌等肿瘤患者的生存率及预后密切相关。因此,以CD24为靶向的肿瘤诊断和治疗有着诱人的临床应用前景。  相似文献
7.
8.
Osteopontin in metastatic lesions as a prognostic marker in ovarian cancers   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Summary Osteopontin (OPN) is expressed in various human cancers and associated with tumor progression, invasion and metastasis in many manners. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of OPN expression in metastatic lesions of ovarian cancers, since the prognosis of the patients with peritoneal dissemination is extremely poor. In primary tumors and peritoneal metastatic lesions from 40 patients with stage III ovarian cancers, the protein levels of OPN and histoscores were determined by enzyme immunoassay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining revealed OPN was distributed in the cytoplasm and nuclear compartments of the cancer and stromal cells within and around the tumor. The OPN level was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in 32 of 40 metastatic lesions of ovarian cancers. The OPN increased cases identified by immunohistochemical staining were consistent with those identified by the sandwich immunoassay. The prognosis of the 32 patients with significant increase of OPN in ovarian cancers was extremely poor, whereas the 36-month survival rate of the 8 patients with no increase of OPN was 75%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the levels of OPN were independent predictors of prognosis from clinical characteristics (age, lesion size, histological types). OPN might be associated with peritoneal metastasis and its advancement, and that the OPN level in metastatic lesion may be a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancers.  相似文献
9.
目的研究细胞凋亡及凋亡相关蛋白P53和Bcl-2在非小细胞肺癌组织中的表达水平,及其对预后的影响。方法应用DNA缺口末端标记技术和免疫组化方法检测111例肺癌患者组织中细胞凋亡、突变型P53和Bcl-2蛋白表达水平。结果111例肺癌中,细胞凋亡高表达53例(47.7%),突变型P53蛋白阳性45例(40.5%),Bcl-2蛋白阳性59例(53.2%)。COX模型多因素分析显示,淋巴结的转移和Bcl-2蛋白的阳性表达是本组肺癌患者的预后不良因素(P<0.05)。结论凋亡及凋亡相关蛋白P53和Bcl-2影响肺癌患者的生物学行为及预后。  相似文献
10.
Combining several screening tests: optimality of the risk score   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
McIntosh MW  Pepe MS 《Biometrics》2002,58(3):657-664
The development of biomarkers for cancer screening is an active area of research. While several biomarkers exist, none is sufficiently sensitive and specific on its own for population screening. It is likely that successful screening programs will require combinations of multiple markers. We consider how to combine multiple disease markers for optimal performance of a screening program. We show that the risk score, defined as the probability of disease given data on multiple markers, is the optimal function in the sense that the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is maximized at every point. Arguments draw on the Neyman-Pearson lemma. This contrasts with the corresponding optimality result of classic decision theory, which is set in a Bayesian framework and is based on minimizing an expected loss function associated with decision errors. Ours is an optimality result defined from a strictly frequentist point of view and does not rely on the notion of associating costs with misclassifications. The implication for data analysis is that binary regression methods can be used to yield appropriate relative weightings of different biomarkers, at least in large samples. We propose some modifications to standard binary regression methods for application to the disease screening problem. A flexible biologically motivated simulation model for cancer biomarkers is presented and we evaluate our methods by application to it. An application to real data concerning two ovarian cancer biomarkers is also presented. Our results are equally relevant to the more general medical diagnostic testing problem, where results of multiple tests or predictors are combined to yield a composite diagnostic test. Moreover, our methods justify the development of clinical prediction scores based on binary regression.  相似文献
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