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Global climate change is predicted to alter growing season rainfall patterns, potentially reducing total amounts of growing season precipitation and redistributing rainfall into fewer but larger individual events. Such changes may affect numerous soil, plant, and ecosystem properties in grasslands and ultimately impact their productivity and biological diversity. Rainout shelters are useful tools for experimental manipulations of rainfall patterns, and permanent fixed-location shelters were established in 1997 to conduct the Rainfall Manipulation Plot study in a mesic tallgrass prairie ecosystem in northeastern Kansas. Twelve 9 x 14–m fixed-location rainfall manipulation shelters were constructed to impose factorial combinations of 30% reduced rainfall quantity and 50% greater interrainfall dry periods on 6 x 6–m plots, to examine how altered rainfall regimes may affect plant species composition, nutrient cycling, and above- and belowground plant growth dynamics. The shelters provided complete control of growing season rainfall patterns, whereas effects on photosynthetic photon flux density, nighttime net radiation, and soil temperature generally were comparable to other similar shelter designs. Soil and plant responses to the first growing season of rainfall manipulations (1998) suggested that the interval between rainfall events may be a primary driver in grassland ecosystem responses to altered rainfall patterns. Aboveground net primary productivity, soil CO2 flux, and flowering duration were reduced by the increased interrainfall intervals and were mostly unaffected by reduced rainfall quantity. The timing of rainfall events and resulting temporal patterns of soil moisture relative to critical times for microbial activity, biomass accumulation, plant life histories, and other ecological properties may regulate longer-term responses to altered rainfall patterns.  相似文献
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土壤呼吸对降雨响应的研究进展   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
 土壤呼吸是当前区域碳收支及全球变化研究中的一个热点问题。降雨作为一个重要的扰动因子, 对准确估算土壤呼吸具有重要影响, 这在干旱和半干旱地区尤为明显。尽管关于土壤呼吸对降雨响应过程与规律的研究已取得了较大进展, 但是对于其机制的解释仍然存在较大的争议, 集中体现在对“Birch效应” (降雨强烈激发土壤呼吸的现象)的解释上, 即到底是“底物供应改变机制”还是“微生物胁迫机制”在调控该过程。该文综述了土壤呼吸对降雨事件、降雨量及降雨格局的响应过程与规律; 阐述了土壤呼吸各组分对降雨响应的差异, 分析了雨后物理替代与阻滞、底物供应、根系和微生物活性、微生物群落结构与功能等一系列过程引起土壤呼吸改变的机制; 重点阐述了微生物对土壤水分波动的响应与适应机制。在此基础上提出了今后需重点关注的4个方面:1) “底物供应改变机制”与“微生物胁迫机制”的区分; 2)土壤呼吸各组分对降雨响应的差异;3)不同时空尺度上土壤呼吸对降雨响应的模拟与估算; 4)降雨带来的外援N和H+的作用。  相似文献
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The potential impacts of changes in precipitation patterns associated with global climate change on the relationship between soil community diversity and litter decomposition were investigated. For a period of ca. 5 months, two decomposer communities in litterbags (1000 and 45 μm mesh size) containing spruce litter were subjected to two irrigation treatments: constant and fluctuating (drying/rewetting) moisture conditions. The latter were expected to induce moisture stress on the decomposer communities. The two mesh sizes were used to exclude different faunal components from the decomposer communities. The 1000 μm mesh excluded only the macrofauna, whereas the 45 μm mesh excluded both the macro- and mesofauna. In the short-term perspective of the present study, mesofauna abundance showed no response to imposed fluctuating moisture conditions. Irrespective of the presence of mesofauna, mass loss, microbial biomass and the control mechanisms, regulating carbon mineralization appeared unaffected by fluctuating moisture conditions. The reduction in the functional/structural diversity of the decomposer communities in the 45 μm litterbags resulted in strongly increased Nematoda abundance but it did not alter the response of Nematoda to fluctuating moisture conditions. Processes in the nitrogen (N)-cycle and mass loss were sensitive indicators of changes in the structural and functional complexity of decomposer communities. However, a negative effect of fluctuating moisture conditions on extractable N was coupled to the presence of mesofauna. Extremes in rainfall patterns, generated by climate change, may have a negative impact on the availability of nutrients, particularly N, for plants. This effect could be amplified by an additional impoverishment in the structural and functional complexity of the respective decomposer communities.  相似文献
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为探讨样地扰动对生态学野外控制试验的影响,在介绍一个较大型森林降水格局野外控制试验的基础上,分析了试验平台建设的设施对土壤化学性质和净氮(N)转化速率所产生的影响。结果表明,整个约0.7 hm2样地在5 - 9月间的土壤有机碳(SOC)、全N (TN)、硝态N、铵态N、微生物生物量C (MBC)、净N矿化速率和硝化速率均表现出一定的时空变异,但设施对SOC、TN、硝态N、铵态N和净矿化速率的影响统计学检验不显著;而设施建设和样方周边挖隔离沟对净N硝化速率在刚完成平台建设时有显著影响(P < 0.05),但恢复3个月后虽仍有差异,但统计学检验已不显著。这些提示了在分析和解释降水处理对净N硝化速率的影响效应时,应注意设施效应和坡位差异的潜在影响。  相似文献
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利用一个基于详细生理学过程的生态系统模型PALS-FT,通过模拟实验分析了美国亚利桑那州(Arizona)首府凤凰城(Phoenix)市西郊的Larreatridentata荒漠生态系统在干湿年份(1988-2002年)对大气CO2浓度升高响应的差别。结果表明,生态系统地上净初级生产力(ANPP)和土壤有机质年累积速率(SOM)均随大气CO2浓度升高而呈非线性(湿年)或线性(正常年和干年)增加;所有年份的土壤N含量(Nsoil)则呈非线性显著下降。ANPP与SOM的绝对变化量总是湿年大于正常年和干年,相对变化量则与所分析的CO2处理水平有关;Nsoil的绝对变化量和相对变化量均为湿年大于正常年和干年。不同功能型的植物ANPP对大气CO2浓度升高的绝对变化量均为湿年大于正常年和干年;相对变化量则因具体植物功能型而异,灌木和亚灌木为干年大于正常年和湿年,一年生C3和C4草本均为湿年大于正常年和干年。因此,无论是生态系统水平还是植物功能型(或物种)水平,荒漠生态系统对未来大气CO2浓度升高的响应都将受降水格局的显著影响。  相似文献
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陈军  王玉辉 《生态学报》2012,32(22):6925-6935
弄清全球变化背景下不同地区降水格局的变化对科学理解气候变化及其影响具有重要意义。苏尼特左旗荒漠草原是温带干旱半干旱地区的典型荒漠草原,对气候变化,特别是降水变化非常敏感。利用1956-2009年的日降水资料探讨了苏尼特左旗荒漠草原降水格局的变化规律,以为揭示气候变化的影响机制提供依据。结果表明,该地区年均降水量为191.9 mm,年际变化剧烈,变异系数达26.63%;年均降水日数为63.8 d,变异系数16.9%。生长季降水占全年的85%,但各月变异系数均>50%;降水日数占全年的63%。年和生长季的各月降水以中等降水量、弱降水日数为主,中等强度以上降水事件较少。近50 a来,年和生长季的降水量、降水日数与各等级降水事件均呈下降趋势,年降水减少的原因在于中等降水事件的减少、生长季降水减少的原因在于弱降水事件的减少。年降水减少将影响草地的土壤水分与植物返青;而生长季降水减少将直接影响草地固碳。气候变化背景下年与生长季降水的减少将进一步加剧该地区干旱程度并影响植物的生长发育,从而直接威胁到草地畜牧业的发展。  相似文献
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研究气候变暖导致的温度升高和降水格局的变化对典型植被类型建群种植物种子萌发和幼苗存活的影响,对于预测森林群落的发展趋势、种质资源保育及森林抚育更新具有重要意义.以寒温带针阔混交林的建群种和优势种红松Pinus koraiensis、蒙古栎Quercus mongolica种子和幼苗为研究对象,采用空间替代法模拟温度升高和降水变化,观察其种子萌发和幼苗生长情况.结果表明:与种源地相比,蒙古栎种子在温度升高与降水增加(年均温+4.9℃,+330 mm)或降水减少(年均温+2.8℃,-249 mm)的条件下萌发率分别下降了13%和18%,但差异不显著.红松种子在温度升高与降水增加的情况下萌发率比种源地提高了2.29倍,而降水减少时则下降了64%,不同的地点对红松的萌发率差异极显著;不同的温度、降水组合对红松和蒙古栎幼苗的生长均产生不同影响,在温度升高与降水增加与降水减少的情况下,1年生蒙古栎幼苗的株高、基径和主根长度均有明显下降,与种源地差异显著,而对红松幼苗生长的影响差异不显著;温度升高和降水增加或降水减少的交互作用使蒙古栎幼苗和红松幼苗总生物量下降,尤其是在温度升高与降水增加的条件下两种幼苗的生物量最小,分别比种源地下降了62%和20%.但统计分析表明,红松幼苗生物量在3个样地间没有显著差异.温度升高和降水变化均降低了两种幼苗的根冠比,而比叶面积没有显著差异.  相似文献
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为探讨降水季节分配的变化对南亚热带常绿阔叶林凋落物的影响,在广东省鹤山国家野外生态观测站模拟干季更干(DD)和延长干季(ED)的野外降水控制实验,对森林生态系统中凋落物变化进行了分析研究。结果表明,该试验林年凋落物总量为9.24 t hm–2,在不同时期均以叶凋落物为主,约占50.7%~69.3%。DD处理显著减少了干季(10–3月)叶凋落物量(P0.01)。虽然DD处理下全年总凋落物量比对照降低了10.3%,但差异不显著。ED处理也减少了春季(4–5月)的叶和花果及总凋落物量,全年总凋落物量则比对照增加了11.3%,但ED处理对春季和全年凋落物量的影响均差异不显著。两种干旱处理对凋落物叶质量总体上影响不明显,但DD处理显著减小了火力楠(Michelia macclurei)凋落叶的木质素含量。因此,降水格局的变化可能会影响南亚热带森林土壤的碳汇能力。  相似文献
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