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1.
Visual deprivation and distance estimation in the praying mantis larva   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Abstract. Young larvae of the praying mantis, Tenodera sinensis Saussure, were placed on an off-centre island surrounded by a round arena with six black bars painted on a white inner wall. In this situation, it was shown that the horizontal peering movements of the head often seen in mantids are in fact used to measure distances; motion parallax may be involved in this process. Aimed jumps that followed peering were taken to be the distinct result of an absolute distance measurement. Specific visual deprivation such as painting over of certain parts of the eye with opaque black varnish or degeneration of the fovea with sulforhodamine showed that: absolute evaluation of distance is only possible with two fully intact eyes; the peering mechanism is under visual control; and visual experience has a long-term effect on distance measurement involving peering movements.  相似文献
2.
Adult females of the mantis, Tenodera angustipennis, were presented with a wriggling model, consisting of six circular spots positioned in a row horizontally and adjacently. During presentation, this model wriggled like a worm by moving some spots. When the motion of the model was small (the number of moving spots ≤2), the mantis sometimes stalked the model with peering movements but seldom struck it. When the motion was large (the number of moving spots ≥3), the mantis frequently fixated, rapidly approached, and struck the model. These results suggest that the mantis changes its approach behavior depending on the amount of prey motion. Disappearance of some terminal spots at the stationary end hardly affected the rates of fixation, peering, and strike. The model that wriggled at each end elicited lower rates of fixation and strike than the model that wriggled at one end. These results suggest that the mantis responds to only the fastest moving part of the wriggling model when the motion of the model is large. Electronic Publication  相似文献
3.
In the present study, peering behaviour, which is used to measure distance by the image motion caused by head movement, is examined in two types of mantid. Mantis religiosa inhabits a region of dense grass consisting of uniform, generally uniformly aligned, and closely spaced elements and executes slow, simple peering movements. In contrast, Empusa fasciata climbs about in open regions of shrubs and bushes which consist of irregular, variably aligned and variably spaced elements and it executes comparatively quick, complex peering movements. Hence, it seems that in these two species of mantid, the same orientation mechanism has been adapted to the unique structures of their visual surroundings. Apparently M. religiosa uses motion parallax and E. fasciata uses a combination of motion parallax and forward and backward movements (image expansion/contraction over time) to detect object distances.  相似文献
4.
Summary The catching behaviour of the praying mantis Sphodromantis viridis is investigated in order to see whether or not the detection of prey size depends on the detection of prey distance. A first experiment demonstrates the mantid's ability to discriminate small differences in prey distance. Next, the preferred prey size is determined for a number of distances with the preference being indicated by the strike rates. The results demonstrate that the mantid's judgements of size are based on a relative (angular) scale rather than on an absolute (millimetre) scale. This is a strong piece of evidence that a relation between size and distance does not exist. Finally, the attack behaviour is analysed in detail, but it turns out that prey size has no effect on the organization of both the lunge of the body and the strike of the raptorial forelegs. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that mantids localize prey with precision, but they do so without any knowledge of the absolute size of prey.  相似文献
5.
Summary The praying mantis, Mantis religiosa, is unique in possessing a single, tympanal auditory organ located in the ventral midline of its body between the metathoracic coxae. The ear is in a deep groove and consists of two tympana facing each other and backed by large air sacs. Neural transduction takes place in a structure at the anterior end of the groove. This tympanal organ contains 32 chordotonal sensilla organized into three groups, two of which are 180° out of line with the one attaching directly to the tympanum. Innervation is provided by Nerve root 7 from the metathoracic ganglion. Cobalt backfills show that the auditory neuropile is a series of finger-like projections terminating ipsilaterally near the midline, primarily near DC III and SMC. The auditory neuropile thus differs from the pattern common to all other insects previously studied.  相似文献
6.
ABSTRACT. Horizontal head movements of the praying mantis, Sphodromantis lineola Burm., were recorded continuously. They responded to the presence of a live blowfly prey in the antero-lateral visual field with a rapid saccadic head movement. The angular movement of a fixation saccade was correlated positively to the displacement of the prey from the prothoracic midline. Saccade magnitude and velocity are related. After the stimulus moved out of the visual field, the mantis made a second saccadic head movement, a return saccade towards the body midline. We observed return saccades in which the head overshot or undershot the body midline, as well as saccades which returned the head exactly to its initial position. In 92% of trials with intact mantids, the return movement succeeded eventually in rotating the head back to its initial position, whereas after removal of the neck hair plates this occurred in only 47% of trials. There is a consistent relation between saccade extent and velocity. Velocities of return saccades were slower than those of fixation saccades. It is suggested that sensory inputs from the neck hair plate proprioceptors modify both the magnitude and the angular velocity of fixation and return saccadic head movements.  相似文献
7.
Display behaviour in a small species of Indian praying mantis, Ephestiasula amoena , is described and the possible role of this display in courtship is discussed. The display involves exposure of the bright pattern on the inside face of the expanded plate-like profemora. The profemoral patterns found in closely related species are discussed and it is suggested that the display may also play a role in species recognition. The courtship behaviour of E. amoena is contrasted and compared with the courtship of other species of praying mantis.  相似文献
8.
9.
Six species of the order Mantodea (praying mantises) are investigated for the presence and sequence of putative adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The selected species span a wide evolutionary range of various families and subfamilies of the clade Mantodea. The corpora cardiaca of the different species are dissected, methanolic extracts prepared, peptides separated by liquid chromatography, and AKHs detected and sequenced by ion trap mass spectrometry. All six species investigated contain an octapeptide with the primary structure pGlu‐Val‐Asn‐Phe‐Thr‐Pro‐Asn‐Trp amide, which is code‐named Emppe‐AKH and had been found earlier in three other species of Mantodea. Conspecific bioassays with the species Creoboter sp. (family Hymenopodidae) reveal an adipokinetic but not a hypertrehalosemic function of Emppe‐AKH. Comparison with other members of the Dictyoptera (cockroaches, termites) show that Emppe‐AKH is only found in certain termites, which have been recently placed into the Blattaria (cockroaches) as sister group to the family Cryptocercidae. Termites and cockroaches both show biodiversity in the sequence of AKHs, and some cockroach species even contain two AKHs. In contrast, all praying mantises—irrespective of their phylogenetic position—synthesize uniformly only one and the same octapeptide Emppe‐AKH.  相似文献
10.
1. Female feeding regime exhibited a cascade of effects on reproductive biology and behaviour in the mantid Stagmomantis limbata (Hahn). 2. Well‐fed females (High diet) consistently attained greater body mass, thicker abdomens, and higher fecundity than food‐limited females (Low diet) in four annual generations. Dorso‐ventral abdominal thickness strongly correlated with fecundity. 3. In an experiment in captivity, Low diet females were more likely to cannibalize males than High diet females. 4. High diet females attracted more males than Low diet females in several contexts. In terms of long‐range attraction, caged High diet females attracted more males in the field. In terms of short‐range attraction, males preferentially mounted and copulated with High diet females in captive paired choice trials. In naturally‐occurring pairs in the field, a preference for females with thick abdomens was evident. These results point to two possible explanations: male choice for well‐fed females and state‐dependent female pheromone emission. 5. Two years of field data indicate considerable variation in female feeding success, as measured by abdominal thickness. Average feeding success in nature appears to be relatively high, when comparing the rate of abdominal expansion in the field to captive females maintained on High diets. 6. In the field, nearly all mounts and copulations occurred in September in both years, when female feeding success is expected to be high. If mating activity occurs during a window of high female feeding success, so as to reduce the risk of cannibalism for males, then the female feeding regime may be implicated in the phenology of mating activity in cannibalistic species.  相似文献
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