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排序方式: 共有109条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
花粉的保存及其生活力测定   总被引:137,自引:2,他引:135  
花粉是种子植物的雄配子体,在有性繁殖中发挥着重要作用,采集的花粉和贮存的花粉,在使用之前必须作生活力的鉴定,以估价花粉是否有授精能力,并掌握花粉的形态和生理特征,本文对花粉的采集与保存,花粉生活力的概念及花粉生活力的测定方法作了详细的介绍,并对各种方法的优缺点进行了讨论。  相似文献
2.
刺五加花粉活力和柱头可授性的研究   总被引:65,自引:1,他引:64  
刘林德  张洪军  祝宁  申家恒 《植物研究》2001,21(3):375-379,T001
用TTC法测定了刺五加花粉的活力和寿命,用联苯胺一过氧化氢法、开花后套袋法测定了其柱头可授期,用扫描电子显微镜观察了刺五加柱头的亚显微形态特征。结果表明,刺五加长花丝植株的花粉活力比中花丝植株的高;花粉活力及其下降快慢随生境不同而有所差异;通常情况下,花粉寿命约4天。刺五加长花丝植株的柱头一直不具有可授性;中花丝植株和短花丝植株的柱头,因所处生镜不同,在开花后5-7、6-8、或7-9天具可授性;生境越郁闭,柱头具可授性的时间越晚。具可授性的柱头有独特的形态特征,即:柱头外翻、5或4裂、湿性、乳突细胞呈猫耳朵状。  相似文献
3.
锦带花的花粉活力、柱头可授性及传粉者的观察   总被引:44,自引:7,他引:37  
在野外实地观测锦带花(Weigela florida(Bunge)A.DC.)的开花动态和访花者,在显微镜下观测柱头和花粉的形态及花粉-胚珠比,用TTC法测定锦带花花粉的活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性。结果表明,锦带花的花粉活力在开花时达70%以上,且能维持3d,之后明显下降。锦带花的柱头在开花3h后多数呈白色、二裂、具可授性,柱头的可授期持续2~3d。柱头与花药之间有5.3士0.9mm的空间距离,自然条件下难于自花授粉.开花当天7.00~10.00之间访花者最丰富,开花第2天访花者减少,开花第3天时访花者更少。在锦带花上记录到的访花者隶属于膜翅目、鳞翅目和双翅目,其中,熊蜂和蜜蜂是主要传粉者。  相似文献
4.
Effects of salinity on seed set in rice   总被引:15,自引:1,他引:14  
5.
杂种鹅掌楸及其亲本花部形态和花粉活力的遗传变异   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
对鹅掌楸属(Liriodendron L.)种间杂种[L.chinense(Hemsl.)Sarg.×L.tulipifera  相似文献
6.
濒危植物缙云卫矛繁育系统研究   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
运用花粉萌发、联苯胺-过氧化氢法、花粉—胚珠比、杂交指数和套袋实验等方法,对缙云卫矛(Eu-onymuschloranthoidesYang)花粉活力、柱头可授性及繁育系统进行了研究。结果表明缙云卫矛花粉-胚珠比为764~1340,杂交指数等于3,结合人工授粉和套袋实验结果可以确定该物种的繁育系统属于自交亲和,有时需要传粉者。根据套袋实验及实地观察可以推测该物种以风媒传粉为主。其花粉活力较高,持续时间较长,花粉质量可能不是导致该物种濒危的主要原因。其雌雄性功能表达具一定的重叠期,提高了同株异花授粉的几率,雌雄性功能表达在时间上的差异不是影响其结实率的主要原因。气候条件对传粉过程的限制可能是导致该物种濒危的原因之一。  相似文献
7.
8.
Wide hybridization in okra   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Summary Crosses were made between members of the two West African okra types Soudanien and Guineen. All crosses succeeded in both directions and the F1 plants which showed hybrid vigour for plant stature were partially sterile. Cytological observations of the F1 plants revealed abnormal meiosis which resulted in the production of microspores of variable sizes. The frequency of viable pollen (as indicated by acetocarmine staining) was low in the hybrids: 35.80% (U.I.92× U.I.313) and 39.41% (1bk-1×U.I.215). The number of seeds produced per fruit was low in the hybrids and only a few of these seeds are viable. The possibility of gene transfer between the two okra types was discussed.  相似文献
9.
Huang Z  Zhu J  Mu X  Lin J 《Annals of botany》2004,93(3):295-301
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Leymus chinensis is an economically and ecologically important grass that is widely distributed across eastern areas of the Eurasian steppe. A major problem facing its propagation by man is its low sexual reproductivity. The causes of low fecundity are uncertain, largely because many aspects of the reproductive biology of this species remained unknown or incomplete. This study aims to address some of these issues. METHODS: Pollen dispersion, pollen viability, pollen longevity and pistil receptivity were studied in a representative, natural population of L. chinensis growing in Inner Mongolia. KEY RESULTS: Flowering of L. chinensis occurred at the end of June and lasted for 5 d. Pollination peaked between 1600 h and 1700 h, and about 56.1 % of the total pollen grains were released at this time. Pollen density was highest towards the middle of flowering spikes and lowest at the bottom over the 5 d measurement period. Pollen viability (62.4 %) assessed using TTC was more accurate than using IKI (85.6 %); 50 % of pollen arriving on stigmas germinated. Pollen remained viable for only 3 h and the pollen : ovule ratio was 79 333 : 1. Pistil receptivity lasted for only 3 h and, overall, 86.7 % of pistils were pollinated. Within the spike, the relative fecundity of different positions was middle > lower > upper throughout the period of pollination; daily variation of fecundity was similar to that of the pollen flow. The spikes that opened on the day of highest pollen density exhibited the highest fecundity (36.0 %). No seeds were produced by self-pollination. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that low pollen viability, short pollen longevity and short pistil receptivity all appear to contribute to the low seed production typical of this important forage crop.  相似文献
10.
Genotypic variation in the effect of salinity on fertility in rice   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
The effect of salinity on the reproductive physiology of five rice genotypes (IR54, IR26, IR2153-26-3-5-2, IR15324-117-3-2-2 and BR6), was investigated by treatment from panicle initiation with sodium concentrations of 20, 35 or 50 mol m-3 in an artificial seawater. In an experiment conducted in a glasshouse, plant height and dry weight were little affected by the treatments. There was, however, genotypic variation in the extent of the sodium accumulation, with IR15324-117-3-2-2 containing the highest and IR2153-26-3-5-2 the lowest concentrations: sodium concentrations were higher in older than younger leaves.Salinity delayed flowering, reduced the number of productive tillers, the number of fertile florest per panicle, the weight per grain and the grain yield: effects on grain yield were very much more severe than on vegetative growth. Panicle length was also reduced as was the number of primary branches in a panicle: again there was genotypic variation in the response of these characters to salinity, with the number of branches in IR2153-26-3-5-2 being particularly sensitive.The concentration of sodium increased in the pollen, stigmas, lemmas and paleas with each increment of external salinity. The highest concentrations of sodium in pollen and stigmas was recorded in IR54 and IR15324-117-3-2-2. Pollen viability, whether tested with the tetrazolium salt thiazolyl blue (3-{4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2}-2,5-diphenyl monotetrazolium bromide or MTT), germination on stigmas, growth through the stylar tissue or F1 seed set, was reduced particularly in those genotypes accumulating most sodium. At all three salt levels, a genotype which accumulated more Na in its pollen produced less-viable pollen than those with less Na in their pollen. Since the amount of Na in the pollen was highly correlated with the Na in the flag leaf, assessment of flag leaf Na should prove a useful indicator of the likely pollen viability. Stigmatic receptivity was also reduced, when estimated either from germination of viable pollen on stigmas of salt-grown plants, its growth through the stylar tissue or F1 seed set. The reduction of seed set in crosses suggested that the overall consequences of salinity are dominated by effects on panicle development, stigmas and grain filling rather than on pollen.Analysis of the data suggests that genotypic variation exists in the extent to which salinity affects aspects of the plants reproductive physiology and development: this variation might be used in attempts to enhance the resistance of rice to salinity.  相似文献
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