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A pathogen- and salicylic acid (SA)-induced DNA-binding activity has been recently identified in tobacco that is related to a previously identified class of WRKY DNA-binding proteins. To identify members of the WRKY gene family associated with this DNA-binding activity, we have attempted to isolate those WRKY genes that are induced by pathogen infection. Using a domain-specific differential display procedure, we have isolated two tobacco WRKY genes, tWRKY3 and tWRKY4, that are rapidly induced in resistant tobacco plants after infection by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Both tWRK3 and tWRKY4 encode proteins with a single WRKY domain that contain the conserved WRKYGQK sequence. Unlike other isolated WRKY proteins that contain the Cys2His2 zinc motif, tWRKY3 and tWRKY4 appear to contain the Cys2HisCys zinc motif. Nonetheless, both tWRKY3 and tWRKY4 are capable of binding DNA molecules with the W-box (TTGAC) element recognized by other WRKY proteins. Expression of the tWRKY3 and tWRKY4 genes could be rapidly induced not only by TMV infection but also by SA or its biologically active analogues that are capable of inducing pathogenesis-related genes and enhanced resistance. Interestingly, induction of both genes by TMV infection was still observed in resistant tobacco plants expressing the bacterial salicylate hydroxylase gene (nahG), although the levels of induction appeared to be reduced. Identification of pathogen- and SA-induced genes encoding WRKY DNA-binding proteins should facilitate future studies on the regulation and functions of this novel group of DNA-binding proteins.  相似文献
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高等植物防卫反应的信号传导   总被引:20,自引:1,他引:19  
高等植物对病原微生物的防卫反应包括植物细胞对病原菌的识别,胞内信号的转换与传导,防卫反应的开启与SAR抗性的形成等。本文对高等植物防卫反应信号传导的研究进展进行了综述。  相似文献
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植物防御反应的两种信号转导途径及其相互作用   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
植物遭到病虫害时质膜两侧的离子发生跨膜交换、释放钙离子、产生大量的活性氧并产生蛋白质磷酸化,通过水杨酸、茉莉酸以及乙烯信号转导途径激活了PR1、BGL2等防御相关基因.这些基因的表达产物如蛋白酶抑制剂(proteinase inhibitor,PI)等能够抑制植食性昆虫的消化酶以及增加细胞壁厚度,从而增强了对昆虫和病原菌等的抵抗力.植物的各种防御信号途径之间既存在拮抗作用又有协同作用,共同组成了一个复杂的防御体系,在一定程度上有效地抵御各种生物胁迫.  相似文献
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活性氧在植物抗病反应中的作用(综述)   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
介绍植物与病原体相互作用中的氧化爆发现象,总结了氧化爆发的几个特点。重点讨论在植物与病原体相互作用的活性氧产生机制,概述活性氧在植物抗病反应中的可能作用。  相似文献
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植物G蛋白与植物防卫反应   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
近年来, 植物G蛋白(包括异三聚体G蛋白和小G蛋白)的存在及其信号调控途径已经成为人们研究细胞信号转导过程的热点问题。从多种植物细胞中相继分离克隆出多个与动物G蛋白同源的编码植物G蛋白的基因, 并且植物G蛋白的种类和数量有其独特性。植物G蛋白在植物细胞跨膜信号转导中发挥重要的作用, 参与多种生命活动的调控。本文主要综述了植物G蛋白参与植物防卫反应调节作用的研究进展。  相似文献
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植物光毒素作用机理   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
光激发植物光毒素产生单线态氧或自由基,破坏核酸、脂质和蛋白质等,对病毒、细菌、真菌、线虫、昆虫和其他植物产生毒性,在植物的防护反应中具有重要作用.  相似文献
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动物经过数亿年的进化直到脊椎动物阶段出现了渐为完整的免疫系统。植物在与各种病原的共进化过程中亦发展了自身的防御系统。随着对植物抗病性的概念及植物防御机制的不断认识,人们发现它与动物的免疫应答有着众多的对应性。这些对应性是否表明植物的防御系统与动物的免疫系统在进化上具有同一性,是否表明它们在防御反应上具有类似的机制值得深思 。  相似文献
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Quantitative and qualitative changes in isoperoxidase patterns from stems of three cultivars of pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.). one susceptible, one intermediate and one resistant, were found upon inoculation with Phytophthora capsici using a decapitation method. The peroxidase activity was determined in the intercellular fluid as well as in the cytosolic fraction of the necrotic, healthy and intermediate zones of stems of the three cultivars, 6 days after inoculation. In the intercellular fluid, peroxidase activity of the susceptible cv. Yolo Wonder increased somewhat from 4.7 (healthy zone) to 12.9 (intermediate zone) μmol mg−1 protein min−1, whereas in the intermediate cv. Americano, the peroxidase activity decreased from 123 (healthy zone) to 78 (intermediate zone) μmol mg−1 protein min−1. The most dramatic increase (5.7 to 662 μmol mg−1 protein min−1) in intercellular peroxidase activity was found in the resistant cv. Smith-5. This, in conjunction with the appearance of an additional acidic isoperoxidase (pI 4.4) specific for the cv. Smith-5, could be the reason for the resistance of this cultivar against the fungus attack. The release of peroxidase into the intercellular space as a defense reaction was confirmed by histochemical analysis, showing that peroxidase activity occurred in the intercellular spaces of those stems of the resistant cultivar that had not yet been invaded by the fungus, but was detected neither in the other cultivars nor in the intercellular spaces of such stems of the intermediate and susceptible cultivars that contained growing mycelium of P. capsici. The lack of staining in the intercellular spaces of the susceptible cultivars could be attributed to their low content in peroxidase.  相似文献
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