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1.
沙棘的生物学与生态学特性   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
沙棘生物学与生态学特性一直是众多学者关注的焦点之一,众多学者在叶表皮毛特征、根系解剖结构和生物固氮方面已经取得了基本一致的看法,但在水分生理生态和种群坟散方面尚存争议或不理解之处。这主要是由于忽视了沙棘无性系植物种群的生理整合作用和觅养行为。因此,今后应该从无性系生长可塑性调节和分株间资源共享特征出发,进一步探讨沙棘的抗旱机理和生态适应对策。  相似文献
2.
The costs of reproduction in plants   总被引:17,自引:1,他引:16  
3.
毛乌素沙地旱柳生长和生理特征对遮荫的反应   总被引:15,自引:3,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
在一个控制试验中,旱柳经历了全不遮荫、部分遮荫和全部遮荫处理.比较了全不遮荫枝、全部遮荫枝、部分遮荫阳生枝(阳生枝)和部分遮荫阴生枝(阴生枝)的生长和生理特征,结果表明:阳生枝和全部遮荫枝的叶出生率和死亡率分别大于全不遮荫枝和阴生枝;遮荫处理明显影响净光合速率和夜间呼吸速率;阳生枝的分枝生物量、总校长度、枝叶生物量和枝叶重比显著大于全不遮荫枝,而阴生枝的分枝数、分枝生物量、叶面积、叶生物量、基茎、总校长度、枝叶生物量和枝叶重比都显著小于全部遮荫枝.  相似文献
4.
Self/non-self discrimination in roots   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:11  
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6.
Effects of clonal integration on plant plasticity in Fragaria chiloensis   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Peter Alpert 《Plant Ecology》1999,141(1-2):99-106
The ability of clonal plants to transport substances between ramets located in different microsites also allows them to modify the plastic responses of individual ramets to local environmental conditions. By equalising concentrations of substances between ramets, physiological integration might decrease responses to local conditions. However, integration has also been observed to increase plasticity and induce novel plastic responses in ramets. To ask how integration modifies plant plasticity in the clonal herb, Fragaria chiloensis, ramets were given either low light and high nitrogen or high light and low nitrogen, simulating a pattern of resource patchiness in their native habitat. Ramets in contrasting light/nitrogen treatments were either connected or single. Effects of light/nitrogen and connection were measured at three levels of morphological organisation, the organ, the ramet, and the clonal fragment. Connection between ramets reduced or had no effect on plastic responses in leaf size at the level of the plant organ. This suggested that integration dampened certain plastic responses. Connection induced a new plastic response at the level of the clonal fragment, an increase in allocation to vegetative reproduction in patches of low light and high nitrogen. It is concluded that clonal integration can have different effects on plant plasticity at different levels of plant organisation. It appears that, at least in this species, integration can increase plasticity at the level of the clonal fragment and concentrate vegetative reproduction in particular microsite types.  相似文献
7.
克隆植物的水分生理整合及其生态效应   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
水分生理整合是克隆植物生理整合过程中非常重要的一部分,是克隆植物生长发育和生态适应过程中的重要机制之一。本文主要从理论上对克隆植物水分生理整合的存在性、方向性、整合的程度、范围及其与克隆植物的功能分工、表型可塑性和觅养行为、风险分摊等行为表现的关系进行了深入分析,并对迄今有关克隆植物水分整合的最新研究进展和研究方法进行了系统总结和评述。提出克隆植物的水分生理整合包括水平和垂直两个方向,而水力提降为垂直方向的水分生理整合提供了一个重要途径。认为在今后,应加强对克隆植物水分生理整合的精确定量化研究,同时,应运用生态学、生理学、生物化学及分子生物学等方法,综合深入地研究克隆植物水分整合的机理。  相似文献
8.
All natural environments are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Consequently, their ability to provide essential resources for the growth of plants is variable. Modular plant species produce repeated basic structures which, in the case of clonal species, are called ramets. Ramets belonging to the same clone are distributed throughout the environment in space and time, and therefore they may be located in sites which differ in resource-providing quality. The connections between ramets may allow resources to be shared, enabling the clone to behave as a cooperative system. As a result of such physiological integration, ramets can survive in conditions where there is lethal shortage of a resource because they are connected to, and supported by, ramets located in conditions where there is ample supply of the same resource. Physiological integration between connected ramets presents opportunities for heterogeneous environments to be exploited to an extent that is only just becoming apparent. As heterogeneity is ubiquitous in natural environments, it may be expected that plants, as relatively immobile organisms, will have evolved the capacity to cope with it by making appropriate localized morphological and/or physiological plastic responses. Recent studies suggest that such responses not only enable clonal species to cope with environmental heterogeneity, but that under some circumstances they can benefit more from environments which are heterogeneous rather than homogeneous, even when both types of environment contain the same amount of resources. Studies on Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae) that illustrate this phenomenon are described.  相似文献
9.
Abstract The effects of physiological integration on clone behaviour are examined at various structural scales, using data from the stoloniferous herb Glechoma hederacea . The consequences for clone expansion of traumatic fragmentation of the connections between clonal ramets are also illustrated. These results, together with information from other species, are used to refute the commonly-quoted view that physiological integration between the ramets of clonal herbs evens out the effects of variation in environmental quality, and promotes equitable ramet performance. Instead, clonal species are responsive, at a variety of structural scales, to environmental quality. Therefore, in a heterogeneous habitat, within-clone variation in the performance of ramets and clonal sub-structures is to be expected. The seminal study which purports to demonstrate environmental averaging in clonal herbs is shown to be both inadequately designed and inappropriately analysed to accomplish its aim.
Physiological and architectural reasons for the local responses to environmental quality seen in the majority of clonal herbs are discussed.  相似文献
10.
施肥对毛竹(Phyllostachys pubescens)竹笋生长的影响   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
 毛竹(Phyllostachys pubescens)为具有重要经济价值的高大乔木状竹种。本文通过完全随机化区组施肥试验,探讨了施肥量及施肥方式对毛竹竹笋生长的效应。结果表明:在毛竹林内施肥可使出笋数和活笋数提高3倍以上,但对竹笋(幼竹)的个体大小却几乎没有改良效果。竹笋的存活率基本上是恒定的,不随施肥量的改变而改变。当地下茎(竹鞭)穿越养分分布不均的环境时,竹笋能有选择地大量长于养分丰富的地段而避开养分贫乏的地段。另一方面,跨越于有利地段和不利地段的竹(笋)株间有明显的生理整合作用,而且这种生理整合在显著增加了长在不利地段的竹笋数(高收益)的同时,基本上没有减少长在有利地段的竹笋数(低耗费)。9m×9m的样方已足以观测到显著的施肥效果,这比传统的毛竹研究中使用的1亩的样方面积效率要高。在竹林培育方面,不均匀施肥如带状或点状施肥要比均匀施肥效率高。  相似文献
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