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1.
Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: A maximum likelihood approach   总被引:126,自引:0,他引:126  
Summary The application of maximum likelihood techniques to the estimation of evolutionary trees from nucleic acid sequence data is discussed. A computationally feasible method for finding such maximum likelihood estimates is developed, and a computer program is available. This method has advantages over the traditional parsimony algorithms, which can give misleading results if rates of evolution differ in different lineages. It also allows the testing of hypotheses about the constancy of evolutionary rates by likelihood ratio tests, and gives rough indication of the error of the estimate of the tree.By acceptance of this article, the publisher and/or recipient acknowledges the U.S. government's right to retain a nonexclusive, royalty-free licence in and to any copyright covering this paperThis report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately-owned rights  相似文献
2.
Evolution of the cytochromeb gene of mammals   总被引:98,自引:0,他引:98  
Summary With the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochromeb gene (∼ 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). The fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the cytochromeb DNA and amino acid sequences. The relative rates of substitution at first, second, and third positions within codons are in the ratio 10 to 1 to at least 33. For deep divergences (>5 million years) it appears that both replacements and silent transversions in this mitochondrial gene can be used for phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic findings include the association of (1) cetaceans, artiodactyls, and perissodactyls to the exclusion of elephants and humans, (2) pronghorn and fallow deer to the exclusion of bovids (i. e., cow, sheep, and goat), (3) sheep and goat to the exclusion of other pecorans (i. e., cow, giraffe, deer, and pronghorn), and (4) advanced ruminants to the exclusion of the chevrotain and other artiodactyls. Comparisons of these cytochromeb sequences support current structure-function models for this membrane-spanning protein. That part of the outer surface which includes the Qo redox center is more constrained than the remainder of the molecule, namely, the transmembrane segments and the surface that protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Many of the amino acid replacements within the transmembrane segments are exchanges between hydrophobic residues (especially leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Replacement changes at first and second positions of codons approximate a negative binomial distribution, similar to other protein-coding sequences. At four-fold degenerate positions of codons, the nucleotide substitutions approximate a Poisson distribution, implying that the underlying mutational spectrum is random with respect to position.  相似文献
3.
Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: tempo and mode of evolution   总被引:96,自引:0,他引:96  
Summary We cloned and sequenced a segment of mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon. This segment is 896 bp in length, contains the genes for three transfer RNAs and parts of two proteins, and is homologous in all 5 primates. The 5 sequences differ from one another by base substitutions at 283 positions and by a deletion of one base pair. The sequence differences range from 9 to 19% among species, in agreement with estimates from cleavage map comparisons, thus confirming that the rate of mtDNA evolution in primates is 5 to 10 times higher than in nuclear DNA. The most striking new finding to emerge from these comparisons is that transitions greatly outnumber transversions. Ninety-two percent of the differences among the most closely related species (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) are transitions. For pairs of species with longer divergence times, the observed percentage of transitions falls until, in the case of comparisons between primates and non-primates, it reaches a value of 45. The time dependence is probably due to obliteration of the record of transitions by multiple substitutions at the same nucleotide site. This finding illustrates the importance of choosing closely related species for analysis of the evolutionary process. The remarkable bias toward transitions in mtDNA evolution necessitates the revision of equations that correct for multiple substitutions at the same site. With revised equations, we calculated the incidence of silent and replacement substitutions in the two protein-coding genes. The silent substitution rate is 4 to 6 times higher than the replacement rate, indicating strong functional constraints at replacement sites. Moreover, the silent rate for these two genes is about 10% per million years, a value 10 times higher than the silent rate for the nuclear genes studied so far. In addition, the mean substitution rate in the three mitochondrial tRNA genes is at least 100 times higher than in nuclear tRNA genes. Finally, genealogical analysis of the sequence differences supports the view that the human lineage branched off only slightly before the gorilla and chimpanzee lineages diverged and strengthens the hypothesis that humans are more related to gorillas and chimpanzees than is the orangutan.Abbreviations mtDNA mitochondrial DNA - bp base pair - URF unidentified reading frame  相似文献
4.
中国种子植物特有属起源的探讨   总被引:73,自引:9,他引:64  
本文根据文献和调查资料,对于中国种子植物特有属(包括半特有属)进行了统计分析,着重根据现知化石资料和一些代表科属的系统发生,结合它们的地理分布探讨了中国特有属的起源问题,初步获得6点结论。主要是中国植物区系的特有性很高,种子植物中含有321个特有属和10个特有科(皆包括半特有的),约占全国同类属数的10%。包括系统发生和地理分布的各种类群。裸子植物特有属多发生于白垩纪或更早,被子植物古特有属主要发生于晚白垩纪及第三纪各时期,新特有属多发生于新第三纪及其以后,秦岭以南亚热带至热带山地是大多数特有属的分布和分化中心或发源地。即各特有属科主要起源于华南古陆和古地中海东岸,喜马拉雅造山运动和青藏高原的隆起,对于中国特有属的形成、发展和分布有重要影响。  相似文献
5.
Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphism was used to determine genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Oryza. Forty two genotypes including 17 wild species, representing AA,BB,CC,EE,FF,GG,BBCC,CCDD, and HHJJgenomes, two cultivated species, Oryza sativa (AA) and Oryza glaberrima (AA), and three related genera, Porteresia coarctata, Leersia and Rhynchoryza subulata, were used in ISSR analysis. A total of 30 ISSR primers were screened representing di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats, of which 11 polymorphic and informative patterns were selected to determine the genetic diversity. The consensus tree constructed using binary data from banding patterns generated by ISSR-PCR clustered 42 genotypes according to their respective genomes. ISSR analysis suggests that the genus Oryza may have evolved following a polyphyletic pathway; Oryza brachyantha (FF genome) is the most divergent species in Oryza and Oryza australiensis (EE genome) does not fall under the Officinalis complex. DNA profiles based on ISSR markers have revealed potential diagnostic fingerprints for various species and genomes, and also for individual accessions/cultivars. Additionally ISSR revealed 87 putative genome/species-specific molecular markers for eight of the nine genomes of Oryza. The ISSR markers are thus useful in the fingerprinting of cultivated and wild species germplasm, and in understanding the evolutionary relationships of Oryza. Received: 23 August 1999 / Accepted: 10 November 1999  相似文献
6.
太湖猪遗传多样性和系统发生关系的RAPD分析   总被引:44,自引:2,他引:42  
常青  掌子凯 《遗传学报》1999,26(5):480-488
报道了对太湖猪7个类群,红灯笼猪,约克夏种猪及太湖地区野猪共57个个体随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)分析的结果,重建了太湖猪的系统发生树。实验从40个引物中选用重复性较好的13个引物对所有个体进行了随机扩增,共获得198个RAPD标记,单个引物获得的标记数在3-16间。  相似文献
7.
蝗总科部分种类Cyt b基因序列及系统进化研究   总被引:41,自引:5,他引:36  
蝗总科8个科10个种的线粒体DNA细胞色素b(Cyt b)基因部分序列被测定分析,比较同源性,计算核苷酸使用频率并构建NJ分子系统树。在获得的432bp的序列中,A T约占70.4%,其中177个核苷酸位点存在变异(约占41.0%),DNA一级序列数据显示,该8科蝗虫间DNA序列变异丰富。用日本蚱作外群构建的NJ树表明:瘤锥蝗科较为原始,而癞蝗科与槌角蝗科关系较近,为比较进化的类群,蝗总科8科的起源关系为:瘤锥蝗科→班翅蝗科和锥头蝗科→斑腿蝗科→剑角蝗科→网翅蝗科→槌角蝗科和癞蝗科,上述研究结果与传统形态分类学结论不完全一致,并就此进行了讨论。  相似文献
8.
用桑蚕(包括不同生态地理品种59个及野桑蚕)和桑属植物(包括12个种和2个变种)两类截然不同的材料,探讨了分子系统学研究中RAPD分子位点数与遗传差异信息可靠性间的关系。发现:(1)所分析的位点数多少与所能提供系统信息的量及可靠性之间有明显的关系;(2)当位点数在20以下时,得到的遗传差异的结果极不可靠,随着位点数的增加所提供的信息量及可靠性增加。当位点数超过70个时,所提供的信息可靠性趋于稳定;(3)对桑蚕和桑属植物两种截然不同的材料的分析,均得相似结果。由此推论:在用RAPD进行生物系统学研究中,以分析70个左右位点数为好;这一结论受研究对象的影响小,在其它类似的研究中或许具有一定的参考价值。 Abstract:We studied the correlation between the number of RAPD-loci investigated and the reliability of the information on genetic variation analysis using quite different two-kind materials,silkworms(including 59 geographic varieties of Bombyx mori belonging to different ecotype,as well as Bombyx mandarina M.)and mulberries(including 12 species and 2 varieties).The results showed as follows:(1)There was obvious correlation between the numbers of RAPD-loci investigated and the reliability of the information on genetic variation analysis.(2)The data were not suitable for the genetic variation analysis when the number of RAPD-loci in vestigated was smaller than 20.The more RAPD loci were analyzed,the more accurate genetic diversity would be identified when the number of the locus was varied from 20 to 70.Furthermore,the stable information to be available is shown when the number exceeded 70.(3)The similar regularities mentioned above were observed in both silkworm and mulberry.In order to get reliable information of genetic variation in molecular phylogenetic studies,at least 70 RPD loci would be investigated.And the results obtained in this study might be referential for AFLP and RFLP analysis.  相似文献
9.
Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies   总被引:37,自引:0,他引:37  
The evolutionary history of a set of taxa is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree, and this model has greatly facilitated the discussion and testing of hypotheses. However, it is well known that more complex evolutionary scenarios are poorly described by such models. Further, even when evolution proceeds in a tree-like manner, analysis of the data may not be best served by using methods that enforce a tree structure but rather by a richer visualization of the data to evaluate its properties, at least as an essential first step. Thus, phylogenetic networks should be employed when reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, recombination, or gene duplication and loss are believed to be involved, and, even in the absence of such events, phylogenetic networks have a useful role to play. This article reviews the terminology used for phylogenetic networks and covers both split networks and reticulate networks, how they are defined, and how they can be interpreted. Additionally, the article outlines the beginnings of a comprehensive statistical framework for applying split network methods. We show how split networks can represent confidence sets of trees and introduce a conservative statistical test for whether the conflicting signal in a network is treelike. Finally, this article describes a new program, SplitsTree4, an interactive and comprehensive tool for inferring different types of phylogenetic networks from sequences, distances, and trees.  相似文献
10.
中国栎属的起源演化及其扩散   总被引:37,自引:4,他引:33  
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