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1.
The comparative method plays a central role in efforts to uncover the adaptive basis for primate behaviors, morphological traits, and cognitive abilities. 1 - 4 The comparative method has been used, for example, to infer that living in a larger group selects for a larger neocortex, 5 , 6 that primate territoriality favors a longer day range relative to home range size, 7 and that sperm competition can account for the evolution of primate testes size. 8 , 9 Comparison is fundamental for reconstructing behavioral traits in the fossil record, for example, in studies of locomotion and diet. 10 - 13 Recent advances in comparative methods require phylogenetic information, 2 , 14 - 16 but our knowledge of phylogenetic information is imperfect. In the face of uncertainty about evolutionary relationships, which phylogeny should one use? Here we provide a new resource for comparative studies of primates that enables users to run comparative analyses on multiple primate phylogenies Importantly, the 10,000 trees that we provide are not random, but instead use recent systematic methods to create a plausible set of topologies that reflect our certainty about some nodes on the tree and uncertainty about other nodes, given the dataset. The trees also reflect uncertainty about branch lengths.  相似文献   
2.
We examined the morphology of the wrist (carpal region) skeleton using histological serial sections and cleared and stained forelimbs of representatives of three rodent clades: ‘Hystricomorpha’ (Caviomorpha: Ctenomys opimus, C. talarum, Cuniculus taczanowskii, Erethizon dorsatum, Galea sp., Lagostomus maximus, Spalacopus cyanus; Phiomorpha: Fukomys mechowii, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, Hystrix cristata, H. africaeaustralis; Ctenodactylids (Ctenodactylus gundi)), ‘Myomorpha’ (Arvicola amphibius, Ondatra zibethicus, Meriones unguiculatus, Myodes glareolus, Spalax sp.) and ‘Sciuromorpha’ (Eliomys quercinus, Glis glis, Marmota marmota). We describe the arrangement of the carpal bones and identify several variable traits, some of which represent convergent evolution. One element, the Os posthamatum, lies in the carpal region and has not been recorded before. We interpret this bone as a putative autapomorphy of Hystricognathi but not of ‘Hystricomorpha’.  相似文献   
3.
To understand the origin and genetic diversity of Italian horses, mitochondrial DNA D‐loop sequences were generated for 163 horses from seven breeds. Sequence analysis of a 480‐bp segment revealed a total of 84 haplotypes with 57 polymorphic sites, indicating multiple maternal origins and high genetic diversity. Comparison of the haplotypes with the equine mtDNA haplotype/haplogroup nomenclature showed a haplogroup distribution in the Italian breeds more similar to that found in the Middle East breeds than in the European breeds, probably due to the economic and cultural relationship with the Middle East in the past centuries.  相似文献   
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  1. We hypothesized that the evolutionary stability of insect traits relevant to invasion risk can be used to characterize this risk and the confidence in assigning potential invasiveness.
  2. Different longhorned beetle species have biological trait combinations (diet breadth, host tree condition and adult feeding) that predispose them to different degrees of potential invasiveness if introduced outside their native range. Relevant biological information is often not available for newly introduced species; however, the approach described in the present study could rapidly allow risk to be assigned to such discoveries.
  3. To test this approach, we used a molecular phylogeny for 56 species of Cerambycidae from five subfamilies to measure phylogenetic signal associated with invasive traits. The biological traits were used to cluster species into seven hypothesized risk groups. Mapping these risk designations back onto the phylogeny allowed us to examine the risk within clades at different taxonomic levels and the stability of the risk designation.
  4. We used additional species known to be non‐native invasive problems to test our framework. Our method would have correctly predicted the risk of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) but not Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky).
  5. There was significant phylogenetic signal in both the biological traits and the risk category membership. Our approach can be modified for other groups of concern.
  相似文献   
6.
Actinopterygii (ray‐finned fishes) and Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates and rays) represent more than half of today's vertebrate taxic diversity (approximately 33000 species) and form the largest component of vertebrate diversity in extant aquatic ecosystems. Yet, patterns of ‘fish’ evolutionary history remain insufficiently understood and previous studies generally treated each group independently mainly because of their contrasting fossil record composition and corresponding sampling strategies. Because direct reading of palaeodiversity curves is affected by several biases affecting the fossil record, analytical approaches are needed to correct for these biases. In this review, we propose a comprehensive analysis based on comparison of large data sets related to competing phylogenies (including all Recent and fossil taxa) and the fossil record for both groups during the Mesozoic–Cainozoic interval. This approach provides information on the ‘fish’ fossil record quality and on the corrected ‘fish’ deep‐time phylogenetic palaeodiversity signals, with special emphasis on diversification events. Because taxonomic information is preserved after analytical treatment, identified palaeodiversity events are considered both quantitatively and qualitatively and put within corresponding palaeoenvironmental and biological settings. Results indicate a better fossil record quality for elasmobranchs due to their microfossil‐like fossil distribution and their very low diversity in freshwater systems, whereas freshwater actinopterygians are diverse in this realm with lower preservation potential. Several important diversification events are identified at familial and generic levels for elasmobranchs, and marine and freshwater actinopterygians, namely in the Early–Middle Jurassic (elasmobranchs), Late Jurassic (actinopterygians), Early Cretaceous (elasmobranchs, freshwater actinopterygians), Cenomanian (all groups) and the Paleocene–Eocene interval (all groups), the latter two representing the two most exceptional radiations among vertebrates. For each of these events along with the Cretaceous‐Paleogene extinction, we provide an in‐depth review of the taxa involved and factors that may have influenced the diversity patterns observed. Among these, palaeotemperatures, sea‐levels, ocean circulation and productivity as well as continent fragmentation and environment heterogeneity (reef environments) are parameters that largely impacted on ‘fish’ evolutionary history, along with other biotic constraints.  相似文献   
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9.
The genome sequences of two Polish Kra and Ros isolates of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) were determined and compared with data of previously described ToTV isolates and other Torradovirus members. Whole‐genome sequence comparisons revealed 97.0–99.6% nucleotide sequence identities and close relatedness, with other known ToTV isolates. The high homology between Kra, Ros and Wal'03 ToTVs is likely responsible for the similar symptoms observed on infected plants. However, the symptoms differed in intensity and various host specificity. We report that Kra ToTV caused a milder expression of symptoms on Solanum tuberosum than Wal'03. We hypothesize this may be a result of the significant variability observed within the 3′‐UTR of RNA1 of Kra as well as of Ros ToTV isolates. In the light of this fact, potato may be considered an indicator plant for distinguishing Kra and Wal'03 ToTV isolates.  相似文献   
10.
China is the largest walnut producer in the world, and walnut trees, especially English walnut, are widely distributed in the country. Species of Botryosphaeriaceae include important plant pathogens that can cause diseases on many tree crops including English walnut. Recently, disease symptoms caused by Botryosphaeriaceae were observed on English walnut branches or kernels from Beijing, Henan and Sichuan provinces in China. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the ITS rDNA sequences and translation elongation factor 1‐alpha (TEF‐1α) gene regions, Botryosphaeria dothidea and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae were identified. Pathogenicity tests showed that both species are virulent to English walnut. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L. pseudotheobromae infecting English walnut in the world.  相似文献   
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