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入侵害虫扶桑绵粉蚧在中国的风险分析   总被引:16,自引:1,他引:15  
2008年12月16日调查发现,扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley在广州市的扶桑(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)树上多点发生。采用GARP生态位模型分析预测该虫在中国的潜在地理分布,并参照国际上有害生物危险性分析方法,对扶桑绵粉蚧在中国的危险性作出综合评价。结果表明:中国海南、广东、广西、福建、台湾、浙江、江西、湖南、贵州、云南、重庆、湖北、安徽、上海、江苏、山东、河南等17省区的大部分区域,新疆、四川、甘肃、宁夏、陕西、山西、河北、北京、天津、辽宁、内蒙古等11省区的部分地区,都是该虫的适生区。危险性综合评价值为0.886,在中国的危害风险性很大。  相似文献
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森林有害生物松突圆蚧的危险性分析   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
参照国际上有害生物危险性分析(Pest Risk Analysis,简写PRA)方法,从有害生物的国内分布状况、潜在的危害性、寄主植物的经济重要性、传播扩散的可能性以及危险性的管理难度等几个方面进行定性和定量分析,对松突圆蚧的危险性做出综合评价。评价结果表明松突圆蚧在我国属于高度危险性的森林有害生物。  相似文献
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棕榈科植物有害生物椰心叶甲的风险性分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
运用有害生物危险性分析(Pest Risk Analysis,PRA)的方法,从国内分布状况、潜在危害性、寄主植物经济重要性、传播扩散的可能性,以及危险性的管理难度等方面,综合评价了椰心叶甲的危险性。结果表明椰心叶甲对我国是具高度危险性的有害生物。  相似文献
4.
The introduction of several plant pests into Europe in the 19th century with disastrous consequences called for the development of plant quarantine measures to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products. With the purpose of harmonising these measures, and of promoting measures for pest control, the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) was developed to address organisms that are both directly and indirectly injurious to plants. It supplies a framework for measures against invasive alien species according to the Convention on Biological Diversity, as far as they are plant pests. Three examples of invasive alien species within the scope of the IPPC are given in the article: the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the flatworm Arthurdendyus triangulatus. In its 1997 revision, the IPPC provides for the establishment of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, being acknowledged by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organisation. Standards most important for invasive alien species are those on pest risk analysis, on requirements for the establishment of pest-free areas, on surveillance, on pest eradication programmes, and on the import and release of exotic biological agents. Phytosanitary regulations in the European Union (EU) have been harmonised and up to now have regulated about 300 plant pests. The requirements also have a protective horizontal effect against the unintentional introduction of many other species, but the existing broader IPPC mandate for alien plant pests is not fully applied by the EU regulations. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
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基于GARP的三种芒果象甲在中国的适生性分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
芒果象甲Sternochetus Pierce昆虫是芒果的重要害虫,明确其可能适牛的区域对该虫的科学监测及防治意义重大.本文利用芒果象甲属中主要3种:印度果核芒果象S.mangiferae Fabricius、果核芒果象S.olivieri Faust、果肉芒果象S.frigidus Fabrieius的已知分布点数据和亚洲地区的14个环境地理变量图层,运用GARP生态位模型结合GIS空间分析模块预测了该虫在中国的潜在地理分布,结果表明芒果象甲具有较强的扩散蔓延趋势,对我国的芒果产业构成较大的潜在威胁.  相似文献
8.
Understanding entry pathways resulting from global trade is critical to assess the risks of introduction of invasive alien species (IAS). From 1996 onward, the import of timber from Russia and the Baltic States to Belgium dramatically increased, with more than one million cubic metres of coniferous round wood imported until 2004. Such a high volume could have served as entry pathway for exotic bark beetles from the East that have the potential to become forest insect pests upon establishment. We collected and cross-checked different data sources (FAOSTAT, Eurostat, National Bank of Belgium, Belgian Customs, the Belgian sawmills industry) regarding the import of timber in an attempt to trace back the spatial and temporal patterns of this trade, and to assess the expected validity of a pest risk analysis based on those data. We found that the timber trade between 1996 and 2004 is particularly dynamic in space and time, and may have allowed several opportunities for exotic bark-beetle introductions. In addition, the patterns of trade change so quickly from year to year that the existing data sources are essentially not adequate for IAS risk assessment in a near real-time fashion. The data are either comprehensive, but then aggregated at a too coarse level (space, time, or category) to be of real use in risk assessment, or available with adequate levels of details, in which case they are mostly partial or incomplete. Better accessibility to data and data exchanges between organizations in charge of trade data collection and plant protection would help better targeting of phytosanitary controls.  相似文献
9.
椰子织蛾传入中国及其海南省的风险性分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
【背景】椰子织蛾原产于印度和斯里兰卡,现主要分布于南亚和东南亚,是椰子、中东海枣、蒲葵等多种棕榈科植物的重要害虫。我国目前尚无椰子织蛾发生为害的报道;但从适生性的角度看,该虫的地理分布区与我国南方棕榈植物分布区具有相似的生物气候,理论上我国热带、亚热带的广大区域是椰子织蛾的潜在地理分布区。鉴于其危害严重性,一旦入侵,其危险程度将超过已在我国发生的重要入侵害虫椰心叶甲。【方法】根据国际植物检疫措施标准(ISPM)规定的有害生物风险性分析(PRA)程序,利用相关风险性分析模型,从国内外分布状况、潜在的危害性、受害寄主的经济重要性、传播扩散的可能性及危险性管理难度5个方面,对椰子织蛾在中国及其海南省的风险性进行定性、定量分析。【结果】椰子织蛾在中国及其海南省的风险值(R)分别为2.20和2.30,在我国属于高度危险性有害生物。【结论与意义】本研究可为制定椰子织蛾的检疫管理对策提供依据。  相似文献
10.
随着经济全球化的加速发展,外来入侵昆虫对世界各国农林业、生态环境、社会经济和人类健康造成的影响日趋严重。近10年来,关于外来入侵昆虫风险分析的相关研究备受重视,发展迅速;在研究对象类别中,鞘翅目昆虫居多,占所有入侵昆虫的32.21%,其次为双翅目和膜翅目,最小的为缨翅目,仅占1.44%。风险分析主要包括入侵途径、适生范围及风险等级、传播扩散、经济和生态影响等层面;其中以适生性风险分析研究最多,占43.41%。深入开展入侵昆虫的风险分析,对防范和阻截其传入、扩散和蔓延具有重要的理论意义和应用价值。  相似文献
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