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家蝇对拟除虫菊酯农药的抗性机制   总被引:23,自引:8,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
孙耘芹  袁家圭 《昆虫学报》1990,33(3):265-273
 本文对二氯苯醚菊酯和溴氰菊酯分别选择的高抗性家蝇(Musca domestica vicina)品系2Cl-R及Dec-R的抗性机制进行了研究.应用生物测定、增效剂,体内试验的表皮穿透作用、离体条件的解毒酶系活性的增加以及家蝇头部ATP酶活力的研究结果表明,两种拟除虫菊酯高抗性家蝇品系的表皮穿透性均比正常品系NP为慢,特别是Dec-R品系极慢.酯酶和多功能氧化酶及其末端的细胞色素P-450的活性在两个抗性品系中都比NP品系有不同程度的增高,但2Cl-R品系以氧化酶为主,而Dec-R品系似以酯酶占优势.Dec-R品系的Na+—K+-ATP酶活力低于NP品系的46%,而2Cl-R品系与NP品系相等.Mg2+-ATP酶活性在两个抗性品系中均高于正常品系.Mg2+-ATP酶可能也是拟除虫菊酯的一个重要靶标部位.  相似文献
3.
Small monomeric G-proteins of the plant ras (rat sarcome oncogene product) related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (RAC)/Rho of plants (ROP) family are molecular switches in signal transduction of many cellular processes. RAC/ROPs regulate hormone effects, subcellular gradients of Ca2+, the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates. Therefore, we followed a genetic bottom-up strategy to study the role of these proteins during the interaction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the fungal biotrophic pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). We identified six barley RAC/ROP proteins and studied their gene expression. Five out of six Rac/Rop genes were expressed constitutively in the leaf epidermis, which is the site of interaction with Bgh. None of the genes showed enhancement of mRNA abundance after inoculation with Bgh. After microprojectile mediated transformation of single barley epidermal cells with constitutively activated mutant RAC/ROP proteins, we found an RAC/ROP-specific enhancement of pathogen accessibility, tagging HvRACB, HvRAC3 and HvROP6 as host proteins potentially involved in the establishment of susceptibility to Bgh. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of green fluorescent protein (GFP):HvRAC/ROP-transformed cells revealed varying strengths of plasma membrane association of barley RAC/ROPs. The C-terminal CAAX motif for presumable prenylation or the C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR), respectively, were required for membrane association of the RAC/ROPs. Proper intracellular localisation was essential for HvRACB and HvRAC3 function. Together, our data support the view that different paths of host signal transduction via RAC/ROP G-proteins are involved in processes supporting parasitic entry into epidermal host cells.  相似文献
4.
不同光照强度对西洋参光合特性,营养成分和产量的影响   总被引:18,自引:5,他引:13  
在21.6%自然光强下生长的西洋参叶片,光合作用的光饱和点和光补偿点皆比11%自然光强下的高.在恒定条件下,光合作用最适温度为28℃.21.6%自然光强下的光合产物,较多地分配到根部,11%自然光强下则分配到果实中的高.光合速率在一定范围内随透光强度的增加而提高,以透光30%的叶片为最高.其日变化呈双峰曲线.叶绿素含量在一定范围内随光强的增加而降低,叶绿素b含量的变化亦为同样趋势.叶片结构以弱光和强光相比,在上表皮角质层花纹、下表皮气孔数、叶肉细胞形状、叶绿体数及其基粒片层结构都有明显差别.参的产量随光强的增加而显著增加,但以透光30%时增长幅度最大,40%时增长变小.根中总皂苷和氨基酸含量在一定范围内随光强而增加,至透光40%时又下降.  相似文献
5.
Root penetration ability is an important factor for rice drought resistance in areas with soils subject to both compaction and periodic water deficits. However, breeding for root penetration ability is inhibited by the difficulties associated with measuring root traits. Our objective was to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) associated with root penetration ability. Using wax-petrolatum layers as a proxy for compacted soil, we counted the number of vertical root axes penetrating through the layer, the total number of vertical root axes and the number of tillers per plant of 202 recombinant inbred (RI) lines over three replications. As a measure of root penetration ability, we used a root penetration index defined as the percent of the total number of vertical root axes that penetrated through a wax-petrolatum layer. The RI population exhibited a wide range in the number of penetrating roots axes (10–115 roots), the total number of roots axes (74–226 roots), tillers per plant (6–18), and in the root penetration index (0.11–0.71). Single-marker and interval quantitative trait analyses were conducted to identify RFLP loci associated with the number of penetrating roots, total root number, root penetration index, and tiller number. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were associated with the number of penetrated roots, 19 with the total root number, six QTLs with the root penetration index and ten with tiller number. Individually, these QTLs accounted for a maximum of 8% of the variation in the number of penetrating roots, 19% of the variation in total root number, 13% of the variation in root penetration index and 14% of the variation in tiller number as estimated from regressions. The multimarker regression model accounting for the greatest proportion of the variation in the root penetration index was a three-marker model that accounted for 34% of the variation. Two-marker models accounted for 13% of the variation in the number of penetrated roots, 25% of the variation in total root number, and 21% of the variation in tiller number. This is the first research paper to apply RFLP quantitative trait analysis to dissect genetic loci associated with the total number of roots, root penetration ability and tiller number.Contribution from the Department of Plant and Soil Science, College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. Journal Number T-4-385  相似文献
6.
Understanding breast cancer risk -- where do we stand in 2005?   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women (after lung cancer). The etiology of breast cancer is still poorly understood with known breast cancer risk factors explaining only a small proportion of cases. Risk factors that modulate the development of breast cancer discussed in this review include: age, geographic location (country of origin) and socioeconomic status, reproductive events, exogenous hormones, lifestyle risk factors (alcohol, diet, obesity and physical activity), familial history of breast cancer, mammographic density, history of benign breast disease, ionizing radiation, bone density, height, IGF- 1 and prolactin levels, chemopreventive agents. Additionally, we summarized breast cancer risk associated with the following genetic factors: breast cancer susceptibility high-penetrance genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, PTEN, ATM, NBS1 or LKB1) and low-penetrance genes such as cytochrome P450 genes (CYP1A1, CYP2D6, CYP19), glutathione S-transferase family (GSTM1, GSTP1), alcohol and one-carbon metabolism genes (ADH1C and MTHFR), DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, ERCC4/XPF) and genes encoding cell signaling molecules (PR, ER, TNFalpha or HSP70). All these factors contribute to a better understanding of breast cancer risk. Nonetheless, in order to evaluate more accurately the overall risk of breast tumorigenesis, novel genetic and phenotypic traits need to be identified.  相似文献
7.
 用氚标记阿维菌素点滴处理阿维菌素敏感(ABM-S)和抗性(ABM-R)种群小菜蛾幼虫,结果显示,在5~360 min内的7个不同处理时间,ABM-R种群的平均表皮穿透量比ABM-S种群少1.5倍,处理24 h后,ABM-R种群仍有45.9%的3H-阿维菌素滞留于体表,而ABM-S种群却有98.4%的药剂穿透表皮。放射配体结合分析表明,GABAA受体结合性质的改变是小菜蛾对阿维菌素的另一抗性机制,ABM-S种群(Kd=10.9368±0.4374 nmol/L)和ABM-R种群(Kd=9.8328±0.3933 nmol/L)的受体亲和力无显著差异,但抗性种群的最大结合量(Bmax=71.2842±4.9910 fmol/mg 蛋白)比敏感种群(Bmax=112.0255±7.8418 fmol/mg 蛋白)降低63.6%,即抗性是受体数目的减少而非结构上的改变。  相似文献
8.
甜菜夜蛾对氯氟氰菊酯抗性的表皮穿透机理   总被引:16,自引:4,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
刘永杰  沈晋良 《昆虫学报》2003,46(3):288-291
 用三种方法测定了采自南京江浦的甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua对氯氟氰菊酯的抗性。结果表明,抗性水平的次序为3龄幼虫点滴法(5 499.5倍)和5龄幼虫点滴法(3 973.2倍)>3龄幼虫浸叶法(1 041.6倍)>5龄幼虫叶片夹毒法(24.7倍),因此该品系触杀毒力的抗性水平至少为胃毒毒力LD50的160倍。用14C标记氯氟氰菊酯测定甜菜夜蛾抗性和敏感品系5龄幼虫表皮穿透率结果表明,处理后8h,抗性品系5龄幼虫的表皮穿透率仅为敏感品系幼虫表皮穿透率的55.5%。证实表皮穿透率的降低是产生抗性的一个重要机理。  相似文献
9.
Zubkov AY  Aoki K  Parent AD  Zhang JH 《Life sciences》2002,70(25):3007-3018
This preliminary study was undertaken to explore the possible protective effect of caspase inhibitors Z-VDVAD-FMK and Z-DEVD-FMK in apoptosis and vasospasm in penetrating arteries during cerebral vasospasm. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was induced in 16 dogs by an intracisternal injection of autologous arterial blood (0.4 ml/kg) on Day 0 and Day 2. The dogs were then randomly divided into four groups: control-SAH, vehicle-control, and two treatment groups. In the treatment groups, caspase inhibitors (10 microM) were intracisternally injected each day beginning on Day 2 until Day 6. Effects of the inhibitors were analyzed utilizing angiography, the clinical status of the dogs (activity, appetite, and neurological deficits), and transmission electron microscopy of the penetrating arteries. All the dogs were sacrificed on Day 7. In control-SAH and vehicle-control groups, severe angiographic vasospasm, poor clinical status, and penetrating vasospasm were registered in all the dogs. In the treatment groups, all the dogs developed angiographic vasospasm and vasospasm in penetrating arteries, however, with benign clinical statues. The occurrence of apoptosis in endothelial cells was reduced by caspase-2 but not by caspase-3 inhibitor. Caspase inhibitors failed to prevent vasospasm either in major or in penetrating arteries. The improvement of clinical scores by the caspase inhibitors may be related to their protection of the endothelial cells. Further investigations using more rigorous clinical scoring system and quantitative information on the degree of apoptosis in the vessels, as well as in the brain parenchyma are recommended.  相似文献
10.
Aphid activities during sieve element punctures   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
Aphid salivation in sieve elements and phloem sap ingestion were linked to waveforms in the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG). Non-viruliferousRhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) infected wheat could acquire the virus, which was used as an indication for phloem sap ingestion, whereas virus inoculation by viruliferous aphids on healthy plants was associated with salivation in sieve elements or other phloem cells. Probing was monitored and the waveforms recorded were related to ELISA results of test plants. The EPG patterns A, B, and C are indicative of the stylet pathway phase, whereas patterns E1 and E2 reflect the phloem (sieve element) phase with an unknown activity (E1) or with ingestion and concurrent salivation (E2). Aphids showing pathway and E1 rarely acquired virus, suggesting that little or no phloem sap ingestion can occur during these patterns, whereas those showing additionally pattern E2 did so substantially, indicating phloem sap ingestion. The main pattern related to virus inoculation was E1, although some aphids were able to inoculate plants during pathway. Pattern E1 clearly reflects the most important salivation into sieve elements. Pattern E2 had no clear contribution to virus inoculation, supporting the present hypothesis that during this pattern the saliva is mixed with the phloem sap in the single canal at the stylet tips and ingested immediately, without reaching the plant tissue. Sustained sap ingestion did not affect virus inoculation. So, BYDV inoculation mainly occurs during the first period of a sieve element puncture which is always formed by E1. Implications on persistent virus transmission are discussed.  相似文献
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