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1.
寄生蜂寄主选择行为研究进展   总被引:55,自引:2,他引:53       下载免费PDF全文
侯照远  严福顺 《昆虫学报》1997,40(1):94-107
寄生蜂是膜翅目昆虫中的重要类群,在自然界种类多,数量大。据文献报道全世界膜翅目昆虫大约有10万种”’,其中许多种类与农林害虫长期保持一定的制约关系,在害虫防治中占有重要地位。由于大量使用化学农药导致害虫的抗药性增加,利用天敌昆虫来防治害虫越来越显示出其重要性和优越性。但是,直到近20年来,寄生蜂的寄生行为才受到重视,并给予了广泛的、深入的研究”-‘’严格地讲,寄生蜂应该称为拟寄生蜂,它与通常所说的寄生昆虫像虱子、臭虫等有明显不同,主要区别在于:1.寄生仅仅发生在未成熟阶段,而成虫阶段营自由生活;2.寄…  相似文献
2.
Intraguild interactions in aphid parasitoids   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
We reviewed the literature on aphid parasitoids to determine the occurrence, nature and outcome of intraguild interactions. Intraguild interactions were described for larval, pupal and adult aphid parasitoids and by the type of natural enemy (fungus, predator, or parasitoid). They appear to be prevalent in most aphid parasitoid systems and, except for parasitoid-parasitoid interactions, they are mostly asymmetric, with aphidophagous predators and pathogens killing parasitoids. The limited experimental evidence from field studies is insufficient to provide a comprehensive pattern of the consequences of intraguild interactions for aphid parasitoid populations in general and, more specifically, for the efficacy of biological control. However, because intraguild interactions are widespread in aphid-natural enemy communities and mostly detrimental to aphid parasitoids, we conclude that intraguild interactions have a primary effect in driving fluctuations in aphid parasitoid populations. Drawing on case studies, we further argue that intraguild interactions can substantially alter the effectiveness of aphid parasitoids as biological-control agents.  相似文献
3.
Infochemically mediated tritrophic interaction webs on cabbage plants   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
In response to damage by herbivores, plants are known to emit infochemicals that enhance the effectiveness of insect parasitoids. Studies on plant–parasitoid interactions mediated by such infochemicals have focused on the tritrophic systems in which plants are infested by a single herbivore species. In natural ecosystems, however, plants are often simultaneously infested by several herbivorous species. The present study focuses on two herbivorous species that simultaneously attack crucifer plants and their respective parasitic wasps. We first show the specific responses of the two specialist parasitic wasps [Cotesia plutellae and C. glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)] to infochemicals originating from cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea cv. Sikidori) infested by each of their respective host larvae [Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)]. We then coupled the two tritrophic systems on the same cabbage plants. These experiments demonstrated the presence of indirect interactions between the two species of herbivores. Overall, the results indicate the presence of infochemically mediated tritrophic interaction webs on a single plant. Received: September 1, 2000 / Accepted: February 8, 2001  相似文献
4.
Pollen beetles (Meligethes spp.; Coleoptera: Nitiduliae) are a major pest of oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae) in northern Europe. Phradis interstitialis Thomson, P. morionellus Holmgr., and Tersilochus heterocerus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) are among the most frequent pollen beetle parasitoids. These three species differ in temporal occurrence, as well as in preferred host stage. The behavioural responses of female parasitoids to odours from oilseed rape at bud and flowering stage were evaluated in two‐choice experiments. The role of visual stimuli was examined by combining green and yellow colours with odour stimuli. All three species were attracted to odours from the bud stage of oilseed rape. Tersilochus heterocerus was attracted to odours of flowering rape, but the two Phradis species avoided the flower odours. However, when the odours of flowering rape were combined with yellow, and odours of the bud stage were combined with green, P. interstitialis was equally attracted to both stimuli, and T. heterocerus showed an increased preference for flower odours, while no effect of colours could be found in P. morionellus. The observed differences in responses between the parasitoids may reflect differences in their biology and may be involved in the niche segregation of these often coexisting species. The volatile blends released from the two phenological stages were identified and compared. Clearly, odours can be reliable cues for differentiating between oilseed rape in the bud and flowering stage. Of 20 identified compounds, 18 were released at a significantly higher rate from flowering plants. The terpenes sabinene, myrcene, limonene, and (E,E)‐α‐farnesene were the dominant volatiles in the bud and flower headspace. A group of aromatic compounds including benzaldehyde, methyl benzoate, and phenyl acetaldehyde were mainly released from flowering rape.  相似文献
5.
连续4年采用人工定期释放棉铃虫卵、幼虫和定期回收法,研究了不同棉花品种与棉铃虫卵期、幼虫期寄生蜂种群数量变化的关系.通过对卵、幼虫寄生率反正弦转换后进行方差分析表明,无论是在棉铃虫卵期还是在其幼虫期,转基因棉田中棉铃虫卵和幼虫的被寄生率始终显著低于其亲本对照棉.运用“Y”型嗅觉仪测定转基因棉及其亲本对照棉对棉铃虫幼虫寄生蜂——中红侧沟茧蜂的选择性行为反应,用成对数据进行方差分析,并进行了“T”测验.结果表明,转基因棉对棉铃虫寄生蜂有较强的忌避反应,且取食转基因棉的棉铃虫幼虫与被害转基因棉两者的共同组合与单独被害棉之间对寄生蜂的忌避效应基本一致.  相似文献
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 描述了从美国白蛾蛹中养出的一种啮小蜂新种-白蛾黑棒啮小蜂 Tetrastichus septentrionalis sp. nov., 属啮小蜂属Tetrastichus黑棒啮小蜂种团(howardi-group)。该新种在我国北方美国白蛾发生区分布普遍,也分布韩国。在美国白蛾越冬蛹中及夏季蛹中的寄生率一般为12%~24%,每头寄主蛹出蜂数为78~182 头,雌雄性比为10∶1。在生物防治上具有很好的利用前景。  相似文献
9.
寄生蜂核型特征及其在分类上的应用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
回顾了寄生性膜翅目昆虫(寄生蜂)染色体数目和核型的研究情况及其在寄生蜂分类中的应用,并对寄生蜂核型分类的前景作了讨论。核型对众多的寄生性膜翅目类群来说可以提供许多分类上的信息,并在种类研究上作用最为显著。通过核型数据的进一步积累和染色体显带方法的进一步应用,寄生蜂的核型分类学将得到进一步的发展。  相似文献
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