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1.
几种濒危植物及其近缘类群总DNA的提取与鉴定   总被引:121,自引:0,他引:121  
用低pH 介质,高盐沉淀蛋白质方法成功地从银杉(Cathaya argyrophylla Chun etKuang)、矮牡丹(Paeonia suffruticosa var. spontanea)、南川升麻(Cim icifuga nanchuanensisHsiao)、裂叶沙参(Adenophora lobophylla)的同属种泡沙参(A. potaninii)等植物中提取和部分纯化了细胞总DNA,并对其产率、质量和纯度作了鉴定。此方法的关键是用了一个低pH提取介质,它能有效防止组织破碎及沉淀大量材料时的电离化作用及酚化合物的进一步氧化。所得DNA 不需经氯化铯梯度离心或柱层析,直接可用于限制性片断长度多态性(RFLP)及随机扩增的DNA多态性(RAPD)等分子水平的遗传标记。为检测濒危植物的遗传多样性提供了一套迅速、简便和可靠的技术方案  相似文献
2.
草鱼肠道肝胰脏蛋白酶活性初步研究   总被引:69,自引:3,他引:66  
对不同种类不同蛋白质水平的饲料与草鱼肠道、肝胰脏蛋白酶活性之间的关系,对草鱼前、中和后肠蛋白酶活性的差异,以及这些酶的最适酪蛋白浓度和最适pH值进行了测定研究。草鱼肠道和肝胰脏蛋白酶活性在饲料含蛋白质32—40%的范围内随着蛋白质含量的增加而升高。肝胰脏蛋白酶活性要比肠道稍高些。饲草草鱼肝胰脏蛋白酶比活为每毫克酶蛋白每分钟产生332.5微克酪氨酸,肠道蛋白酶比活为260.0微克酪氨酸。草鱼肠道蛋白酶活性以后肠较高,前、中肠次之。在pH4—9范围内,以酪蛋白作为底物,草鱼肠道、肝胰脏蛋白酶最大活性分别在pH6.5和pH7.0。在酪蛋白实际浓度为83.33—333.33微克/毫升范围内,肠道和肝胰脏蛋白酶最适酪蛋白浓度分别为166.67微克/毫升和208.33微克/毫升。  相似文献
3.
In most soils, inorganic phosphorus occurs at fairly low concentrations in the soil solution whilst a large proportion of it is more or less strongly held by diverse soil minerals. Phosphate ions can indeed be adsorbed onto positively charged minerals such as Fe and Al oxides. Phosphate (P) ions can also form a range of minerals in combination with metals such as Ca, Fe and Al. These adsorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution equilibria control the concentration of P in the soil solution and, thereby, both its chemical mobility and bioavailability. Apart from the concentration of P ions, the major factors that determine those equilibria as well as the speciation of soil P are (i) the pH, (ii) the concentrations of anions that compete with P ions for ligand exchange reactions and (iii) the concentrations of metals (Ca, Fe and Al) that can coprecipitate with P ions. The chemical conditions of the rhizosphere are known to considerably differ from those of the bulk soil, as a consequence of a range of processes that are induced either directly by the activity of plant roots or by the activity of rhizosphere microflora. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of those chemical processes that are directly induced by plant roots and which can affect the concentration of P in the soil solution and, ultimately, the bioavailability of soil inorganic P to plants. Amongst these, the uptake activity of plant roots should be taken into account in the first place. A second group of activities which is of major concern with respect to P bioavailability are those processes that can affect soil pH, such as proton/bicarbonate release (anion/cation balance) and gaseous (O2/CO2) exchanges. Thirdly, the release of root exudates such as organic ligands is another activity of the root that can alter the concentration of P in the soil solution. These various processes and their relative contributions to the changes in the bioavailability of soil inorganic P that can occur in the rhizosphere can considerably vary with (i) plant species, (ii) plant nutritional status and (iii) ambient soil conditions, as will be stressed in this paper. Their possible implications for the understanding and management of P nutrition of plants will be briefly addressed and discussed.  相似文献
4.
草鱼、鲤、鲢、鳙肝胰脏和肠蛋白酶的最适pH值分别为8.7、8.7、7.6、7.6和8.4、8.7、8.0、8.4。草鱼、鲤和尼罗罗非鱼的肝胰脏蛋白酶活性比肠的高;鲢和鳙的肝胰脏蛋白酶的活性却比肠的低;尼罗罗非鱼胃的蛋白酶活性明显高于肝胰脏和肠的。草鱼、鲤和尼罗罗非鱼的肝胰脏蛋白酶活性明显高于鲢和鳙的;5种鱼的肠蛋白酶活性,鲤最高,尼罗罗非鱼最低,草鱼、鲢、鳙和尼罗罗非鱼间蛋白酶活性无明显差异。草鱼、鲤、鲢和尼罗罗非鱼的肠蛋白酶活性由前向后递减,而鳙的则以中肠活性最高。  相似文献
5.
培养基组分及pH值对梨花粉萌发和花粉管生长的影响   总被引:58,自引:7,他引:51  
采用花粉液体培养法研究不同培养基组分和pH值对梨花粉萌发和花粉管生长影响.结果表明:培养基内硼酸、氯化钙、PEG-4000、蔗糖、葡萄糖、麦芽糖、山梨醇、果糖在一定浓度范围内,对花粉萌发及花粉管生长起促进作用,但超过一定浓度时起抑制作用;最适的培养基组分为:30mmol/LMES、0.01%硼酸、0.03%CaCl2·2H2O、15%PEG-4000、5%果糖 或5%山梨醇、10%蔗糖 ,最适的pH值为6.5.在该培养基内梨花粉萌发率约为59.2%,花粉管生长长度为966.3μm.  相似文献
6.
灵芝胞外生物活性多糖的pH控制发酵   总被引:37,自引:3,他引:34       下载免费PDF全文
灵芝深层发酵过程中 pH值对灵芝胞外多糖形成的影响。结果表明起始pH为5.5时,有利于胞外多糖的形成,找到了一种有效的pH控制发酵策略,当发酵过程中控制pH4.0时,胞外多糖的产量最大,达到2.329/L,较未控制提高了24%。另外,还对胞外多糖的生物活性进行了检测,结果表明抗肿瘤活性平均达到51.2%,且能明显提高小鼠的免疫力。  相似文献
7.
碱胁迫对羊草和向日葵的影响   总被引:36,自引:3,他引:33       下载免费PDF全文
以抗盐碱性较强的单子叶植物羊草和双子叶植物向日葵为材料,对其进行中性盐、碱性盐和各种中碱性混合盐等胁迫处理,以日相对生长率(RGR)为主要胁变指标分析各种胁迫的特点及其相互关系.结果表明,碱性盐胁迫与中性盐胁迫实际上是既相关又有本质区别的两种不同胁迫,应该将碱性盐胁迫定义为碱胁迫,而将中性盐胁迫定义为盐胁迫.碱胁迫区别于盐胁迫的关键是高pH值.以缓冲量作为碱胁迫的胁强指标,而以盐度作为盐胁迫的胁强指标较为理想.盐碱混合胁迫时,两种胁迫表现出协同效应.  相似文献
8.
The sequence of events following the addition of 0.5 M NaCl to cells of Escherichia coli growing in a minimal mineral medium was investigated. Immediately after upshock the cells took up a large amount of K+ and synthesized approximately half the equivalent amount of glutamate concomitantly. After 30 min the cells started to synthesize trehalose, and after 2 h they had replaced most of their initial osmoprotectants by the carbohydrate. Cell trehalose was rapidly replaced by proline, taken up from the medium when added to the osmoadapting cells. The initial rate of this proline uptake was extremely rapid, and with rates observed of up to 0.6 mmolxmin-1xg-1 of cell protein it was approximately ten times faster than that reported in the literature for non-growing cells. These results indicate that for osmoadaptation of growing cells of E. coli the uptake of proline has priority over the synthesis of trehalose, which in its turn is preferred above K+ and glutamate as osmoprotectants. We observed that two mutants with unknown lesions, but which are known to be impaired in osmoadaptation, were inhibited in replacing K+ and glutamate by trehalose, indicating that this is the basis for their defect in osmoadaptation. Further experiments revealed that neither internal pH nor the membrane potential nor the transmembrane protonmotive force are likely to be involved in osmoadaptation in E. coli. However, during osmoadaptation a high internal potassium concentration appeared to stimulate the derepression of proline-uptake systems (mainly system ProP).Abbreviations TPP tetraphenylphosphonium - pmf transmembrane protonmotive force - membrane potential, pH, transmembrane pH difference These parameters are defined as the difference between the outside and the inside of the cells  相似文献
9.
10.
Inferring pH from diatoms: a comparison of old and new calibration methods   总被引:33,自引:20,他引:13  
Two new methods for inferring pH from diatoms are presented. Both are based on the observation that the relationships between diatom taxa and pH are often unimodal. The first method is maximum likelihood calibration based on Gaussian logit response curves of taxa against pH. The second is weighted averaging. In a lake with a particular pH, taxa with an optimum close to the lake pH will be most abundant, so an intuitively reasonable estimate of the lake pH is to take a weighted average of the pH optima of the species present.Optima and tolerances of diatom taxa were estimated from contemporary pH and proportional diatom counts in littoral zone samples from 97 pristine soft water lakes and pools in Western Europe. The optima showed a strong relation with Hustedt's pH preference groups. The two new methods were then compared with existing calibration methods on the basis of differences between inferred and observed pH in a test set of 62 additional samples taken between 1918 and 1983. The methods were ranked in order of performance as follows (between brackets the standard error of inferred pH in pH units); maximum likelihood (0.63) > weighted averaging (0.71) = multiple regression using pH groups (0.71) = the Gasse & Tekaia method (0.71) > Renberg & Hellberg's Index B (0.83) » multiple regression using taxa (2.2). The standard errors are larger than those usually obtained from surface sediment samples. The relatively large standard may be due to seasonal variation and to the effects of other factors such as humus content. The maximum likelihood method is statistically rigorous and can in principle be extended to allow for additional environmental factors. It is computer intensive however. The weighted averaging approach is a good approximation to the maximum likelihood method and is recommended as a practical and robust alternative.  相似文献
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