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1.
X-ray microanalysis of the ovipositor and mandibles of various hymenopterous insects has revealed the presence in many species of up to 10% wt/wt of either zinc or manganese in the cuticle. These metals appear to be involved in cuticular hardening, so helping to reduce abrasive wear. Zinc is found in the ovipositors of most Siricidae, Stephanoidea, and Chalcidoidea. In Ichneumonoidea and Cynipoidea, the metal involved is manganese. Megalyroidea are unique in the Hymenoptera in having both zinc and manganese in their ovipositors, though in different locations. Except for Bethylidae, no metals were detected in the ovipositors or stings of species that penetrate soft substrates or do not make holes at all. The cutting edge of the mandibles of many insects that chew their way through hard substrates during egress from their pupation sites almost invariably contain high concentrations of zinc, and this is present in many that lack metals in their ovipositor. The phylogenetic and ecological implications of metal occurrence are discussed.  相似文献
2.
Females of most psychomyiid species bear an elongated ovipositor enabling them to oviposit their eggs into grooves and cavities in different kinds of substrates in freshwaters. Although the preference of psychomyiid species for oviposition into distinct substrates and the subsequent larval life performance in aquatic habitats is already known, the mode of oviposition and the functional morphology of the elongated ovipositor have not been described until now. In this study we present SEM photographs of some psychomyiid species with female ovipositors of different lengths and shapes, explaining their preference for oviposition into distinct substrates. Additionally, we discuss some ecological aspects of the ovipositor shapes and the mode of egg laying for psychomyiids. The female ovipositor consists of two body segments, with an elongated IXth and a distinctly shorter Xth segment, which is flexible and can be pushed up dorsally when releasing the eggs. On the basis of SEM photographs, we suppose that the opening of the channel through which the eggs were released is located ventrally near the ovipositor tip. The ovipositor itself is characterised by a ventral cleft reaching from the gonoporus of segment IX to the tip of the last segment X. We stored adult females abdomina overnight in different aqueous dilutions of ethanol leading to different stages of swelling of the ovipositors (grade of swelling in distilled water >30% ethanol >70% ethanol). Some internal membrane-like structures, normally infolded into the ovipositor, became visible by the swelling of the ovipositor. We discuss the possible rearrangement of the organisation of segment IX resulting in the development of an ovipositor on the basis of SEM photographs of the differently swollen ovipositors.  相似文献
3.
Parasitism by Buathra tarsoleuca (Schrank) of Ammophila sabulosa (L.) and Podalonia affinis (Kirby) nests was studied by means of a frame-by-frame analysis of video recordings obtained in the field. We describe behavioral patterns (with some additional ecological notes) during host detection and provide a schematic diagram for the sequence of events involved in this process. Using scanning electron microscopy, we have found morphological details in the antennae, ovipositor sheaths, and ovipositor of B. tarsoleuca which we suggest are involved in parasitism. The possible parasitism of the same hosts by two other ichneumonid wasps, Cryptus sp. and Meringopus calescens (Grav.), is discussed.  相似文献
4.
The ability of the braconid parasite,Iphiaulax varipalpis Cary to control the beetleDyrphya nigricornis Olivier was evaluated. Field collected samples and specimens reared in polyethylene paper tubes under laboratory conditions (23.0°C±1.0 at 70% r.h) were used. Field parasitism was low (10.72%) while laboratory parasitism was high (57.66%). The parasite detected the hosts very easily in the laboratory. This ability is minimised in thick canopies ofCoffea arabica L. Host colonization was brisk (90 seconds) and confined to a near absolute area of discovery, measuring 4.18±0.41 cm. The parasite reproduces gregariously with female lifespan being approximately double the male period. The parasites are very active at the age of 10 days. As they age their potential fecundity (232 oocytes) reduces drastically with oviposition.   相似文献
5.
The seasonal changes in ovipositor length and utilization patterns of mussels for oviposition in the rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus (Cyprinidae) were investigated in a field experiment and field surveys during the breeding period (April to August). The mean length of ovipositors at oviposition was short at the start (early April) and end (July) of the breeding period. Females with long ovipositor at oviposition were collected between mid‐April and June. Mark‐and‐recapture data showed that ovipositor length at oviposition changed rhythmically throughout the breeding period, shortening and lengthening as the female entered the spawning and resting phase. The density of rosy bitterling embryos in mussels increased between April and June, peaking in May, but decreasing in July. The position of eggs on mussel gills varied from close to the exhalant siphon to deeper inside the gill during April, and periodically thereafter. There was a positive correlation between ovipositor length at oviposition and the distance from exhalant siphon of mussels to eggs deposited by females, suggesting that ovipositor length at oviposition determined the position of eggs deposited on a mussel gill. Because dissolved oxygen in mussel gills decreased with the density of bitterling embryos, suitable positions for embryo survival in gills changed with embryo density. By changing ovipositor length at oviposition, females might be able to spawn their eggs in a position that maximizes embryo survival. Thus, plasticity in ovipositor length at oviposition may play an important role as an adaptation of rosy bitterling in utilizing mussels when their quality as a spawning substratum fluctuates seasonally.  相似文献
6.
Abstract.  The influence of glucose, fructose and sucrose on oviposition site selection by Lobesia botrana is studied by combining behavioural and electrophysiological experiments. Oviposition choice assays, using surrogate grapes treated with grape berry surface extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot at different development stages, show that L. botrana females are most stimulated by extracts of mature berries containing the highest concentrations of glucose and fructose. Choice assays reveal that the oviposition response to these sugars is dose-dependant (with a threshold of the applied solution = 10 m m and a maximum stimulation at 1  m ) and that females are more sensitive to fructose than to glucose. Tarsal contact-chemoreceptor sensilla are unresponsive to stimulation with sugars but the ovipositor sensilla contain at least one neurone most sensitive to fructose and sucrose with a threshold of approximately 0.5 m m . Corresponding to the behavioural data, glucose is significantly less stimulatory to sensilla than fructose or sucrose. It is argued that fructose may be of special importance for herbivorous insects exploiting fruit as an oviposition site.  相似文献
7.
The effect of allelochemicals from its host, the larva of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), and the host's food plant on the ovipositor probing response of the parasitoid Trybliographa rapae (Westw.) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) were investigated. Trybliographa rapae probed both cabbage root fly infested and uninfested swede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica), although significantly more wasps responded to infested swede. Antennal sensilla are likely to be the mediators of this response. The synomones and kairomones involved are extractable in water, diethyl ether and methanol. No response was observed to washed, starved cabbage root fly larvae. Wasps spent significantly longer searching infested swede than uninfested, although probing frequency remained constant. It is suggested that the initiation of probing in T. rapae is dependent on a threshold concentration of general synomones or host related synomones and kairomones, whereas time spent searching a particular area is dependent on the environment perceived by sensilla on the ovipositor.  相似文献
8.
Pseudacteon wasmanni is a South American decapitating fly that parasitizes workers of Solenopsis fire ants. We used light microscopy (historesin serial-sectioning stained with Haematoxylin/Eosin) and scanning electron microscopy to show and analyze internal and whole external views of the female reproductive system. All specimens analyzed (n=9) by light microscopy showed post-vitellogenic oocytes inside the ovaries. The lack of typical follicles (oocyte-nurse cell complexes) in all specimens suggests that oogenesis occurs during the pupal stage. The total number of eggs found ranged from 31 to 280 (X=142±73, SD). The egg has a slugform or torpedo shape (about 130 by 20 μm) with a pointed apex at the posterior pole as defined by the fly; the micropyle appears to be in a depression or invagination at the anterior pole. An acute hypodermic-like ovipositor is evaginated from the hard sclerotized external genitalia during egg laying. The existence of a muscular bulb associated with the end of the common oviduct suggests that the egg is injected into the ant's body by a strong contraction of the bulb which probably is stimulated by bending of several ventral sensilla. During contraction, the abdomen extends out along a large fold between the sixth and seventh tergites in such a way that the sclerotized genitalia is rotated ventrally into a slightly anterior orientation in preparation for oviposition.  相似文献
9.
A large number of contact chemoreceptors are located on the ovipositor valves of adult female grasshoppers. These receptors play an important role in many aspects of grasshopper life such as detecting the chemical composition of the soil before and during oviposition. It is surprising, however, to find these types of receptors on the ovipositor valves of instar larvae which are not able to oviposit. Thus, these receptors may serve functions other than to search for a suitable site for egg laying. Observation under the scanning electron microscope revealed the presence of uniporous basiconic contact chemoreceptors in addition to different types of trichoid mechanoreceptors on the ovipositor valve of lubber grasshopper 3rd instar larvae. Neuroanatomical studies have shown that these sensilla are multiply innervated, containing one mechanosensory neuron and four chemosensory neurons that project locally and intersegmentally. The tip recording technique from single basiconic sensilla demonstrated mechanosensory responses to deflections of the sensillum as well as gustatory activity when in contact with different chemical solutions. The electrophysiological studies have shown that these sensilla serve as contact chemoreceptors and not as olfactory receptors.  相似文献
10.
Constraints and evolution are central for the resolution of conflicts between mutualism species and for the stability of mutualisms. Dioecious fig species and their specific pollinators are also in conflict on the use of fig ovaries. Here, our experiments provided some data on the female florets allocation in two dioecious fig trees. The results showed that: (1) there is a bimodal distribution in the style–length of two fig trees’ female florets, moreover, the style–lengths are fairly similar and narrowly distributed in gall figs and more variation seems to occur in seed figs; (2) the styles in seed figs are a little longer than those in gall figs; (3) the pollinator's ovipositor lengths are shorter than the style–lengths in seed figs, but they are very similar to those in gall figs so that pollinators can only lay their eggs into the ovaries of gall figs, but not in seed figs; (4) the stigmas stick together, and the style is curly and flexible in seed syconia of the two fig species studied, so it is very difficult for the pollinators to find suitable ovipositing sites and lay their eggs in seed figs; (5) the variations of style-lengths are bigger in seed figs than gall figs, but they are smaller in dioecious figs than monoecious figs; (6) for Ficus cyrtophylla, about 10% styles are shorter in seed figs than those in gall figs, even shorter than ovipositor. In contrast, about 2% styles in gall figs of Ficus hispida are longer than its corresponding pollinator's ovipositor. In a word, our study suggests that the female floret's fate in these two fig species is mainly dependent on its style–length, but not all. The stigma shape and the floral organization can both also attribute to their fate in the two fig species studied.  相似文献
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