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Plant metabolomics: large-scale phytochemistry in the functional genomics era   总被引:52,自引:0,他引:52  
Metabolomics or the large-scale phytochemical analysis of plants is reviewed in relation to functional genomics and systems biology. A historical account of the introduction and evolution of metabolite profiling into today's modern comprehensive metabolomics approach is provided. Many of the technologies used in metabolomics, including optical spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry are surveyed. The critical role of bioinformatics and various methods of data visualization are summarized and the future role of metabolomics in plant science assessed.  相似文献
蛋白质组研究的技术体系及其进展   总被引:37,自引:0,他引:37       下载免费PDF全文
随着后基因组时代的到来,蛋白质组研究越来越受到国内外科学工作者的密切关注, 我国国家自然科学基金委员会已把蛋白质组研究列为重大科研项目.概述了蛋白质组研究中的基本技术,包括双向凝胶电泳的样品制备和分离、蛋白质的检测、凝胶图像分析、蛋白质的鉴定以及蛋白质数据库构建等,并就蛋白质鉴定的常用方法如氨基酸组成分析方法、蛋白质末端序列分析、肽质量指纹谱作了详细阐述.直观地列出了蛋白质组研究的技术体系流程图,着重介绍了蛋白质组研究的最新技术及其进展.  相似文献
Identification of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi is often achieved through comparisons of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences with accessioned sequences deposited in public databases. A major problem encountered is that annotation of the sequences in these databases is not always complete or trustworthy. In order to overcome this deficiency, we report on UNITE, an open-access database. UNITE comprises well annotated fungal ITS sequences from well defined herbarium specimens that include full herbarium reference identification data, collector/source and ecological data. At present UNITE contains 758 ITS sequences from 455 species and 67 genera of ECM fungi. UNITE can be searched by taxon name, via sequence similarity using blastn, and via phylogenetic sequence identification using galaxie. Following implementation, galaxie performs a phylogenetic analysis of the query sequence after alignment either to pre-existing generic alignments, or to matches retrieved from a blast search on the UNITE data. It should be noted that the current version of UNITE is dedicated to the reliable identification of ECM fungi. The UNITE database is accessible through the URL http://unite.zbi.ee  相似文献
多年平均降水资源空间变化模拟方法的研究   总被引:28,自引:1,他引:27  
区域多年平均降水量的研究是集水农业工程规划的基础,也是有限的降水资源合理利用和配置的依据。研究利用ARC/INFO地理信息系统,建立了研究区的栅格数字高程模型(DEM)及近30年的年均降水量空间数据库;采用9种算法(距离权重法、趋势面法、样条函数法、普通Kriging法、通用Kriging方法1、通用Kriging方法2、泰森多边形法、多元回归法和综合方法),计算并比较分析了研究区多年平均降水量的  相似文献
Mimicking cellular sorting improves prediction of subcellular localization   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
Predicting the native subcellular compartment of a protein is an important step toward elucidating its function. Here we introduce LOCtree, a hierarchical system combining support vector machines (SVMs) and other prediction methods. LOCtree predicts the subcellular compartment of a protein by mimicking the mechanism of cellular sorting and exploiting a variety of sequence and predicted structural features in its input. Currently LOCtree does not predict localization for membrane proteins, since the compositional properties of membrane proteins significantly differ from those of non-membrane proteins. While any information about function can be used by the system, we present estimates of performance that are valid when only the amino acid sequence of a protein is known. When evaluated on a non-redundant test set, LOCtree achieved sustained levels of 74% accuracy for non-plant eukaryotes, 70% for plants, and 84% for prokaryotes. We rigorously benchmarked LOCtree in comparison to the best alternative methods for localization prediction. LOCtree outperformed all other methods in nearly all benchmarks. Localization assignments using LOCtree agreed quite well with data from recent large-scale experiments. Our preliminary analysis of a few entirely sequenced organisms, namely human (Homo sapiens), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and weed (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggested that over 35% of all non-membrane proteins are nuclear, about 20% are retained in the cytosol, and that every fifth protein in the weed resides in the chloroplast.  相似文献
Simple repetitive DNA sequences from primates: Compilation and analysis   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
Simple repeats composed of tandemly repeated units 1–6 nucleotides (nt) long have been extracted from a selected set of primate genomic DNA sequences. Of the 501 theoretically possible, different types of repeats only 67 were present in the analyzed database in at least two different size ranges over 12 nt. They include all simple repeats known to be polymorphic in the primate genome. A list of moderately expanding and nonexpanding oligonucleotide patterns has also been included. Furthermore, we have compiled statistical data with emphasis on the overall variability of the most abundant 67 types of repeats. We have demonstrated that the expandability of at least some simple repeats may be affected by the overall base composition and by flanking sequences. In particular, the occurrence of tandemly repeated CAG and GCC triplets in exons positively correlates with their G+C content. We also noted that in the vicinity of Alu sequences tetrameric repeats are more abundant than in the total genomic DNA. This paper can be used as a comprehensive guide in identification of the most abundant and potentially polymorphic simple repeats. It is also of broader significance as a step toward understanding the contribution of flanking sequences and the overall sequence composition to variability of simple repeats. Correspondence to: J. Jurka  相似文献
蛋白质组研究进展   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23       下载免费PDF全文
蛋白质组研究技术是后基因组时代的重要研究手段.综述了流感嗜血杆菌、细菌、酵母、线虫、果蝇蛋白质组的研究进展以及蛋白质组研究技术在人类疾病研究中的应用.  相似文献
File and Object Replication in Data Grids   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22  
Data replication is a key issue in a Data Grid and can be managed in different ways and at different levels of granularity: for example, at the file level or object level. In the High Energy Physics community, Data Grids are being developed to support the distributed analysis of experimental data. We have produced a prototype data replication tool, the Grid Data Mirroring Package (GDMP) that is in production use in one physics experiment, with middleware provided by the Globus Toolkit used for authentication, data movement, and other purposes. We present here a new, enhanced GDMP architecture and prototype implementation that uses Globus Data Grid tools for efficient file replication. We also explain how this architecture can address object replication issues in an object-oriented database management system. File transfer over wide-area networks requires specific performance tuning in order to gain optimal data transfer rates. We present performance results obtained with GridFTP, an enhanced version of FTP, and discuss tuning parameters.  相似文献
Genome downsizing in polyploid plants   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
All else being equal, polyploids are expected to have larger C-values (amount of DNA in the unreplicated gametic nucleus) than their diploid progenitors, increasing in direct proportion with ploidy. This expectation is observed in some polyploid series, especially those newly formed, but there are examples suggesting that C-values in particular polyploids are less than expected. The availability of the Angiosperm DNA C-values database ( http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/cval/homepage.html ) has allowed this question to be addressed across a broad range of angiosperms and has revealed striking results deviating from expectation: (i) mean 1C DNA amount did not increase in direct proportion with ploidy, and (ii) mean DNA amount per basic genome (calculated by dividing the 2C value by ploidy) tended to decrease with increasing ploidy. These results suggest that loss of DNA following polyploid formation, or genome downsizing, may be a widespread phenomenon of considerable biological significance. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular events that take place following polyploid formation together with new data on how DNA amounts can both increase and decrease provide some insights into how genome downsizing may take place. The nature of the evolutionary forces that may be driving DNA loss are also discussed.  © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2004, 82 , 651–663.  相似文献
茶树病虫害多媒体数据库的开发研究   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
本介绍了应用Visual foxpro6.0语言、结合我我媒体技术开发茶树病虫害数据库的结果。该数据库包括:42种茶树害虫和21种茶树病害的鉴别、咨询知识库,主要病虫的测报、防治决策专家系统,常用农药知识库及系统维护等模块,是一种查询简便、计算的茶树病虫计算机决策系统。  相似文献
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