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1.
Nutrient use efficiency in evergreen and deciduous species from heathlands   总被引:26,自引:0,他引:26  
Rien Aerts 《Oecologia》1990,84(3):391-397
Summary The nutrient (N, P) use efficiency (NUE: g g–1 nutrient), measured for the entire plant, of field populations of the evergreen shrubs Erica tetralix (in a wet heathland) and Calluna vulgaris (in a dry heathland) and the deciduous grass Molinia caerulea (both in a wet and a dry heathland) was compared. Erica and Calluna are crowded out by Molinia when nutrient availability increases. NUE was measured as the product of the mean residence time of a unit of nutrient in the population (MRT: yr) and nutrient productivity (A: annual productivity per unit of nutrient in the population, g g–1 nutrient yr–1. It was hypothesized that 1) in low-nutrient habitats selection is on features leading to a high MRT, whereas in high-nutrient habitats selection is on features leading to a high A; and that 2) due to evolutionary trade-offs plants cannot combine genotypically determined features which maximize both components of NUE.Both total productivity and litter production of the Molinia populations exceeded that of both evergreens about three-fold. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption from senescing shoots was much lower in the evergreens compared with Molinia. In a split-root experiment no nutrient resorption from senescing roots was observed. Nutrient concentrations in the litter were equal for all species, except for litter P-concentration of Molinia at the wet site. Both Erica and Calluna had a long mean residence time of both nitrogen and phosphorus and a low nitrogen and phosphorus productivity. The Molinia populations showed a shorter mean residence time of N and P and a higher N- and P-productivity. These patterns resulted in an equal nitrogen use efficiency and an almost equal phosphorus use efficiency for the species under study. However, when only aboveground NUE was considered the Molinia populations had a much higher NUE than the evergreens.The results are consistent with the hypotheses. Thus, the low potential growth rate of species from low-nutrient habitats is probably the consequence of their nutrient conserving strategy rather than a feature on which direct selection takes place in these habitats.  相似文献
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提高养分利用效率(NUE)是植物适应贫瘠生境的一种重要的竞争策略。养分利用效率的概念从提出到现在,曾用多个参数描述,其间经历了一个不断完善的发展过程。通过综述近年来相关的研究结果,可以初步得出以下结论:⑴不同种,不同生活型植物,乃至同株植物不同器官的NUE存在不同程度的差异。⑵NUE受多种因素影响。其中,养分有效性的影响研究较多,但争议较大,综合考虑,它对NUE的影响不甚显著;叶片脱落持续时间的影  相似文献
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天童常绿阔叶林若干树种的叶片营养转移研究   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
王希华  黄建军  闫恩荣 《广西植物》2004,24(1):81-85,96
对天童国家森林公园 1 8种植物在落叶前后营养转移量的研究表明 ,不同植物的营养转移率不尽相同 ,N的平均转移率为 3 7.86% ,标准偏差 1 0 .67% ;P的平均转移率为 44.76% ,标准偏差 1 5 .40 %。经方差分析 ,N、P转移率无明显差异 (s=0 .1 3 8)。同时 ,P的转移率与植物成熟叶中的P含量及N/P存在正相关 ,而N的转移率与植物成熟叶子的N含量和N/P不相关。另外 ,常绿植物的N转移率平均值是 3 5 .74% (标准差9.46% ) ,落叶植物N转移率平均值是 3 8.72 % (标准差 1 2 .65 % ) ;常绿植物的P转移率平均值是 3 7.72 % (标准差 1 3 .0 0 % ) ,落叶植物P转移率平均值是 5 5 .3 7% (标准差 1 5 .5 4% )。对落叶和常绿阔叶二种生活型植物进行ANOVA分析 ,表明N转移率无明显差异 ,而P转移率有差异 (P <0 .0 5 )。  相似文献
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 以浙江天童常绿阔叶林、常绿针叶林和落叶阔叶林为对象, 通过对叶片和凋落物C:N:P比率与N、P重吸收的研究, 揭示3种植被类型N、P养分限制和N、P重吸收的内在联系。结果显示: 1)叶片C:N:P在常绿阔叶林为758:18:1, 在常绿针叶林为678:14:1, 在落叶阔叶林为338:11:1; 凋落物C:N:P在常绿阔叶林为777:13:1, 常绿针叶林为691:14:1, 落叶阔叶林为567:14:1; 2)常绿阔叶林和常绿针叶林叶片与凋落物C:N均显著高于落叶阔叶林; 叶片C:P在常绿阔叶林最高, 常绿针叶林中等, 落叶阔叶林最低, 常绿阔叶林和常绿针叶林凋落物C:P显著高于落叶阔叶林; 叶片N:P比也是常绿阔叶林最高、常绿针叶林次之, 落叶阔叶林最低, 但常绿阔叶林凋落物N:P最低; 3)植被叶片N、P含量间(N为x, P为y)的II类线性回归斜率显著大于1 (p < 0.05), 表明叶片P含量的增加可显著提高叶片N含量; 凋落物N、P含量的回归斜率约等于1, 反映了凋落物中单位P含量与单位N含量间的等速损耗关系; 4)常绿阔叶林N重吸收率显著高于常绿针叶林与落叶阔叶林, 落叶阔叶林P重吸收率显著高于常绿阔叶林和常绿针叶林。虽然植被的N:P指示常绿阔叶林受P限制, 落叶阔叶林受N限制, 常绿针叶林受N、P的共同限制, 但是N、P重吸收研究结果表明: 受N素限制的常绿阔叶林具有高的N重吸收率, 受P限制的落叶阔叶林并不具有高的P重吸收率。可见, 较高的N、P养分转移率可能不是植物对N、P养分胁迫的一种重要适应机制, 是物种固有的特征。  相似文献
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The aim of this study was to examine how shifts in soil nutrient availability along a soil chronosequence affected temperate rainforest vegetation. Soil nutrient availability, woody plant diversity, composition and structure, and woody species leaf and litter nutrient concentrations were quantified along the sequence through ecosystem progression and retrogression. In this super-wet, high leaching environment, the chronosequence exhibited rapid soil development and decline within 120,000 years. There were strong gradients of soil pH, N, P and C, and these had a profound effect on vegetation. N:Pleaf increased along the chronosequence as vegetation shifted from being N- to P- limited. However, high N:Pleaf ratios, which indicate P-limitation, were obtained on soils with both high and low soil P availability. This was because the high N-inputs from an N-fixing shrub caused vegetation to be P-limited in spite of high soil P availability. Woody species nutrient resorption increased with site age, as availability of N and P declined. Soil P declined 8-fold along the sequence and P resorption proficiency decreased from 0.07 to 0.01%, correspondingly. N resorption proficiency decreased from 1.54 to 0.26%, corresponding to shifts in mineralisable N. Woody plant species richness, vegetation cover and tree height increased through ecosystem progression and then declined. During retrogression, the forest became shorter, more open and less diverse, and there were compositional shifts towards stress-tolerant species. Conifers (of the Podocarpaceae) were the only group to increase in richness along the sequence. Conifers maintained a lower N:Pleaf than other groups, suggesting superior acquisition of P on poor soils. In conclusion, there was evidence that P limitation and retrogressive forests developed on old soils, but N limitation on very young soils was not apparent because of inputs from an abundant N-fixing shrub.Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at .  相似文献
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Mangrove forests are characterized by distinctive tree-height gradientsthat reflect complex spatial, within-stand differences in environmentalfactors,including nutrient dynamics, salinity, and tidal inundation, across narrowgradients. To determine patterns of nutrient limitation and the effects ofnutrient availability on plant growth and within-stand nutrient dynamics, weused a factorial experiment with three nutrient treatment levels (control, N,P)and three zones along a tree-height gradient (fringe, transition, dwarf) onoffshore islands in Belize. Transects were laid out perpendicular to theshoreline across a mangrove forest from a fringe stand along the seaward edge,through a stand of intermediate height, into a dwarf stand in the interior ofthe island. At three sites, three trees were fertilized per zone for 2yr. Although there was spatial variability in response, growth byR. mangle was generally nitrogen (N) -limited in thefringe zone;phosphorus (P) -limited in the dwarf zone; and, N- and/or P-limited in thetransition zone. Phosphorus-resorption efficiency decreased in all three zones,and N-resorption efficiency increased in the dwarf zone in response to Penrichment. The addition of N had no effect on either P or N resorptionefficiencies. Belowground decomposition was increased by P enrichment in allzones, whereas N enrichment had no effect. This study demonstrated thatessential nutrients are not uniformly distributed within mangrove ecosystems;that soil fertility can switch from conditions of N to P limitation acrossnarrow ecotonal gradients; and, that not all ecological processes respondsimilarly to, or are limited by, the same nutrient.  相似文献
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植物营养转移研究进展   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
50年代初 ,Gregory(见 Williams〔1〕)发现禾谷类植物在生长到其 (干 )生物量的 2 5%时 ,它就吸收积累了全部所需氮磷养分的 90 % ,这些积累的养分是后期生长发育所需的基本养分库 ,养分库的大小决定了产量的高低 ,无疑 ,这些养分必然在体内不断地转移、利用和再分配。这一发现立即引起极大的重视 ,并带来了大量以营养转移为主题的后续研究 ,直至最近的 2 0多年 ,这一主题仍然得到广泛的重视。大量的研究表明 ,营养转移是植物所有保持营养机制中最重要的策略之一 ,因而 ,它又对竞争、营养吸收、生产力等过程产生影响 〔2〕;它在植物体内营…  相似文献
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华南两种豆科人工林体内养分转移特性   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
报道了马占相思与大叶相思两种豆科植物叶内养分的动态及养分转移特征 ,分析测定两种植物的绿叶与黄叶内氮、磷、钾、钠、钙、镁等 6种元素的含量。结果表明 ,两种植物的成熟叶养分含量季节性变化不明显 ,全年养分水平较为稳定。马占相思体内氮、磷、钾、镁养分水平显著高于大叶相思 ,这 4种元素在绿叶与黄叶内的含量也有显著差别。两种植物对 4种元素大量转移再利用 ,但对钙、钠没有表现出转移 ,大叶相思与马占相思平均养分转移率分别为 :氮 49.8% ,39.8% ,磷 75 .5 % ,66.5 % ,钾 61 .8% ,43.3% ,镁 1 9.4% ,1 5 .6%。作为豆科植物具有的固氮能力 ,使转移率格局与非豆科植物不同 ,表现为氮转移率降低 ,而其它元素转移率显著上升。马占相思氮转移量高达 1 1 2 .43kg/( hm2 · a) ,磷 1 2 .74kg/( hm2 ·a) ,钾 45 .78kg/( hm2 · a) ,但镁只有 1 .64kg/( hm2 · a) ,大叶相思养分转移量为 :氮 90 .1 7kg/( hm2 · a) ,磷 7.2 3kg/( hm2·a) ,钾 34.49kg/( hm2·a) ,镁 1 .5 8kg/( hm2·a) ,通过转移获得的养分与植物从环境中吸收的养分量大致相当 ,这两个养分源共同满足了植物生长过程中的养分需求。  相似文献
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