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1.
Abstract Until now, oxidation of ammonium has only been known to proceed under aerobic conditions. Recently, we observed that NH4+ was disappearing from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor treating effluent from a methanogenic reactor. Both nitrate and ammonium consumption increased with concomitant gas production. A maximum ammonium removal rate of 0.4 kg N · m−3 · d−1 (1.2 mM/h) was observed. The evidence for this anaerobic ammonium oxidation was based on nitrogen and redox balances in continuous-flow experiments. It was shown that for the oxidation of 5 mol ammonium, 3 mol nitrate were required, resulting in the formation of 4 mol dinitrogen gas. Subsequent batch experiments confirmed that the NH4+ conversion was nitrate dependent. It was concluded that anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a new process in which ammonium is oxidized with nitrate serving as the electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions, producing dinitrogen gas. This biological process has been given the name ‘Anammox” (anaerobic ammonium oxidation), and has been patented.  相似文献
2.
以浮床空心菜(Ipomoea aquatica)、水芹(Oenanthe javanica)和无植物系统为对象,研究了其在富营养化水体中对N、P的去除及其N2O的排放情况.结果表明,浮床植物系统对水体中N、P具有良好的净化效果,植物组织所累积的N、P量分别占各自系统去除量的0.32%~63.87%,说明植物的同化吸收作用是N、P去除的主要途径.换水周期内浮床植物系统中硝化反应进行充分,而反硝化反应相对缓慢,导致系统具有较高的NH4+- N去除率,而产生NO3--N累积.植物的存在降低了系统中N 2O的排放通量.生长较好的空心菜系统在换水前后平均N2O排放量最低,为17.14 μg N·m-2·h-1,空白高达85.08 μg N·m-2 ·h-1,水芹为37.38 μg N·m-2·h-1.  相似文献
3.
CANON and Anammox in a gas-lift reactor   总被引:51,自引:0,他引:51  
Anoxic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen removal Over Nitrite (CANON) are new and promising microbial processes to remove ammonia from wastewaters characterized by a low content of organic materials. These two processes were investigated on their feasibility and performance in a gas-lift reactor. The Anammox as well as the CANON process could be maintained easily in a gas-lift reactor, and very high N-conversion rates were achieved. An N-removal rate of 8.9 kg N (m(3) reactor)(-1) day(-1) was achieved for the Anammox process in a gas-lift reactor. N-removal rates of up to 1.5 kg N (m(3) reactor)(-1) day(-1) were achieved when the CANON process was operated. This removal rate was 20 times higher compared to the removal rates achieved in the laboratory previously. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the biomass consisted of bacteria reacting to NEU, a 16S rRNA targeted probe specific for halotolerant and halophilic Nitrosomonads, and of bacteria reacting to Amx820, specific for planctomycetes capable of Anammox.  相似文献
4.
Long-Term Nitrogen Additions and Nitrogen Saturation in Two Temperate Forests   总被引:50,自引:6,他引:44  
This article reports responses of two different forest ecosystems to 9 years (1988–96) of chronic nitrogen (N) additions at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) was applied to a pine plantation and a native deciduous broad-leaved (hardwood) forest in six equal monthly doses (May–September) at four rates: control (no fertilizer addition), low N (5 g N m-2 y-1), high N (15 g N m-2 y-1), and low N + sulfur (5 g N m-2 y-1 plus 7.4 g S m-2 y-1). Measurements were made of net N mineralization, net nitrification, N retention, wood production, foliar N content and litter production, soil C and N content, and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) in soil water. In the pine stand, nitrate losses were measured after the first year of additions (1989) in the high N plot and increased again in 1995 and 1996. The hardwood stand showed no significant increases in nitrate leaching until 1995 (high N only), with further increases in 1996. Overall N retention efficiency (percentage of added N retained) over the 9-year period was 97–100% in the control and low N plots of both stands, 96% in the hardwood high N plot, and 85% in the pine high N plot. Storage in aboveground biomass, fine roots, and soil extractable pools accounted for only 16–32% of the added N retained in the amended plots, suggesting that the one major unmeasured pool, soil organic matter, contains the remaining 68–84%. Short-term redistribution of 15N tracer at natural abundance levels showed similar division between plant and soil pools. Direct measurements of changes in total soil C and N pools were inconclusive due to high variation in both stands. Woody biomass production increased in the hardwood high N plot but was significantly reduced in the pine high N plot, relative to controls. A drought-induced increase in foliar litterfall in the pine stand in 1995 is one possible factor leading to a measured increase in N mineralization, nitrification, and nitrate loss in the pine high N plot in 1996. Received 2 April 1999; Accepted 29 October 1999.  相似文献
5.
Many countries strive to reduce the emissions of nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, NOx) to the surface waters and the atmosphere. Since mainstream domestic wastewater treatment systems are usually already overloaded with ammonia, a dedicated nitrogen removal from concentrated secondary or industrial wastewaters is often more cost-effective than the disposal of such wastes to domestic wastewater treatment. The cost-effectiveness of separate treatment has increased dramatically in the past few years, since several processes for the biological removal of ammonia from concentrated waste streams have become available. Here, we review those processes that make use of new concepts in microbiology: partial nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (the anammox process). These processes target the removal of ammonia from gases, and ammonium-bicarbonate from concentrated wastewaters (i.e. sludge liquor and landfill leachate). The review addresses the microbiology, its consequences for their application, the current status regarding application, and the future developments.  相似文献
6.
厌氧氨氧化菌混培物生长及代谢动力学研究   总被引:48,自引:2,他引:46  
研究了厌氧氨氧化菌混培物的动力学特性.测得细胞产率系数1.573mgVS(mmolNH4+)-1;细胞衰减常数0.052mgVS(g@VS@d)-1.厌氧氨氧化菌混培物的最大氨氧化速率1.320~2.761mmol(gVS@d)-1,最大亚硝酸盐转化(反硝化)速率14.497mmol(gVS@d)-1.厌氧氨氧化菌混培物利用氨的Km值1.801~4.215mmol@L-1,利用亚硝酸盐的Km值0.468mmol@L-1.氨自身的抑制常数38.018~98.465mmol@L,实际最大氨氧化速率的氨浓度16.656mmol@L-1.亚硝酸盐对厌氧氨氧化的抑制常数5.401~11.995mmol@L-1.厌氧氨氧化的最适pH7.605.厌氧氨氧化的最适温度30℃.Vmaxa、Kma、Kia和Kin的活化能依次为37.316、30.239、33.695和30.473kJ@mol-1.  相似文献
7.
根据培养试验,论述了脲酶抑制剂氢醌和硝化抑制剂双氰胺和碳化钙的不同组合在土壤正常水分和渍水的条件下对于土中尿素的水解及其释出的氨的吸附、氧化和挥发以及N2O生成的影响.文章指出,配合使用氢醌和双氰胺既能延缓土中尿素的水解并使水解后释出的氨在土中得以更多和更长时间的保持,还能减少土中硝酸盐的累积、氨挥发的损失及N2O的生成.这表明在脲酶抑制剂和硝化抑制剂间可能存在一定的协同作用.很好利用这一作用,将有益于提高尿素肥效和减少其N损失与环境污染.  相似文献
8.
森林土壤氮素转换及其对氮沉降的响应   总被引:35,自引:5,他引:30       下载免费PDF全文
近几十年人类活动向大气中排放的含氮化合物激增 ,并引起大气氮沉降也成比例增加。目前 ,氮沉降的增加使一些森林生态系统结构和功能发生改变 ,甚至衰退。近 2 0 a欧洲和北美有关氮沉降及其对森林生态系统的影响方面的研究较多 ,而我国少有涉及。森林土壤氮素转换是森林生态系统氮素循环的一个重要的组成部分 ,而矿化、硝化和反硝化作用是其核心过程 ,氮沉降作为驱动因子势必改变森林土壤氮素转换速度、方向和通量。根据国外近 2 0 a有关研究 ,首先介绍了森林土壤氮素转换过程和强度 ,论述森林土壤氮素在生态系统氮素循环中的作用 ,然后在此基础上 ,介绍了氮沉降对森林土壤氮素循环的研究途径 ,探讨了氮沉降对森林土壤氮素矿化、硝化和反硝化作用的影响及其机理  相似文献
9.
西双版纳不同热带森林土壤氮矿化和硝化作用研究   总被引:33,自引:2,他引:31       下载免费PDF全文
1998年7月,用埋袋法对西双版纳热带季节雨林、崖豆藤(Mellettialeptobotrya)次生林、季节雨林内林窗和轮歇地土壤的氮矿化和硝化作用进行了研究。研究结果表明季节雨林和崖豆藤次生林的格局基本相同,氮净矿化速率分别为6.55mgN·kg-1·30d-1和6.37mgN·kg-1·30d-1,硝化速率分别为16.28mgN·kg-1·30d-1和16.38mgN·kg-1·30d-1。而林窗下和轮歇地土壤的氮净矿化速率和硝化速率均为负值,氮净矿化速率分别为-7.85mgN·ks-1·30d-1和-10.69mgN·kg-1·30d-1,硝化速率分别为-2.78N·kg-1·30d-1和-3.69mgN·kg-1·30d-1。从实验结果看,在30d的培养过程中,NH4-N消耗较多,导致硝化速率大于氮净矿化速率。  相似文献
10.
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