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植物群落物种共存机制的研究进展   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
物种共存是由进化、历史及生态尺度上的过程决定的.现存的理论从不同的尺度探讨了植物群落物种共存的可能机制,本文阐述了其中几种重要的理论.种库理论在进化和历史尺度上解释了植物物种共存的形成原因.在生态尺度上,虽然传统的生态位理论受到质疑,但是更新生态位理论和资源比率/异质性假说越来越受到重视;竞争共存理论认为具有相似竞争能力或能够避免竞争排斥的植物物种可以共存.在非平衡条件下,生物和非生物因素对植物物种共存也有显著影响,它们一方面作用于竞争优势种,使竞争优势向稀有种转移,另一方面可以创造生境时空异质性,为生态位分化提供机会.生态漂变学说认为群落中物种的组成不断变化,物种的共存和分布由随机因素决定.这些植物群落物种共存理论各有所长,互相补充.应用现代科学技术进行研究,结果必将促进人们对植物物种共存问题的深刻理解.  相似文献
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A new model for the continuum concept   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
A reformulation of the continuum concept is presented after considering the implications of the community/continuum controversy and current niche theory. Community is a spatial concept dependent on landscape pattern while the continuum is an environmental concept referring to an abstract space. When applying niche theory to plants, the mechanisms of competition are ill-defined and the assumption of bell-shaped response curves for species unrealistic.Eight testable propositions on the pattern of response of vegetation to environmental gradients are presented 1. Environmental gradients are of two types. a) resource gradients or b) direct physiological gradients. 2. The fundamental niche response of species to resource gradients is a series of similar nested response curves. 3. The fundamental niche response of species to direct gradients is a series of separate, independent, overlapping response curves. 4. Species fundamental response curves are such that they have a relative performance advantage in some part of the environmental space. 5. The shape of the realized niche is variable even bimodal but predictable from the fundamental response given the other species present. Propositions 6–8 describe the response shapes of emergent community properties to environmental gradient; species richness is bimodal, dominance trimodal and standing crop unimodal. Detailed comparisons of these propositions are made with the alternative theories of Ellenberg, Gauch and Whittaker, Grime, and Tilman. These theories are incomplete lacking several generally accepted properties of plants and vegetation.  相似文献
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Non-neutral patterns of species abundance in grassland communities   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Although the distribution of plant species abundance in a Minnesota grassland was consistent with neutral theory, niche but not neutral mechanisms were supported by the ability of species traits to predict species abundances in three experimental grassland communities. In particular, data from 27 species grown in monoculture showed that species differed in a trait, R *, which is the level to which each species reduced the concentration of soil nitrate, the limiting soil nutrient and which is predicted to be inversely associated with competitive ability for nitrogen (N). In these N-limited habitats, species abundance ranks correlated with their predicted competitive ranks: low R * species, on average dominated. These correlations were significantly different than expected for neutral theory, which assumes the exchangeability of species traits. Additionally, we found that changes in relative abundance after environmental change (N-addition or disturbance) were not neutral but also were significantly associated with R *.  相似文献
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生态位理论在鄂中丘陵地区生态农业建设中的应用   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
近年来在我国的生态农业建设实践中,生态位理论得到了广泛应用,并在应用中有了丰富和发展。孙鸿良等将生态位理论应用于农业生态系统,鉴于农业生态系统具有强烈的  相似文献
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Spatial segregation of specialists and generalists in bird communities   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Each species generally has a close relationship with one or more habitats and can therefore be classified as either specialist or generalist. We studied whether specialist and generalist species are spatially distributed independently of each other. Repeating the analysis for 100 of the most frequent terrestrial bird species recorded over the 10 000 sampled sites of the French Breeding Bird survey, we found that specialists were more abundant if the rest of the community was specialized, and that the inverse was also true. This pattern was far subtler than just a simple dichotomy: most species actually presented a maximum abundance at a value of community specialization similar to their own level of specialization. Bird communities appear very well defined along a specialist–generalist gradient. We believe this pattern becomes more apparent with habitat degradation. The consequences on both ecological services and community resilience may well be considerable.  相似文献
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百山祖常绿阔叶林木本植物的生境相关性分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
中性理论和生态位理论在解释热带雨林中物种共存机制上发挥了重要作用.本文通过Torus-translation榆测方法对百山祖常绿阔叶林5 ha样地中DBH≥1 cm、个体数大于5的89种木本植物与4个根据地形和物种组成划分的小生境进行了关联性分析.同时按植物的胸径径级大小将其分为幼树期、生长期、成熟期3个生长阶段,并分别分析了植物在这3个生长阶段与生境的关联性.结果表明:89个木本植物中,没有表现出显著的生境相关件的物种多是稀有种或是个体数较少的物种,而大部分的常见种表现出与生境的显著相关性;通过对每个物种不同生长阶段的生境相关性比较,发现多数物种的生境相关性会发生改变,其中只有麂角杜鹃(Rhododendron latoucheae)、褐叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana)和厚叶红淡比(Cleyera pachyphylla)在生长的3个生长阶段没有发生改变.这表明,生境异质性对亚热带常绿阔叶林中木本植物的生物多样性的维持起着重要作用,同时对不同生长时期的物种与生境相关性的分析结果表明,大部分物种与生境的相关性会随着生长阶段的变化而发生变化.  相似文献
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Plant invasions and the niche   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
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生态位模型的理论基础、发展方向与挑战   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
生态位模型是一个以生态位理论为基础的新兴研究领域.它通过采集研究对象的已知分布点及其相关的环境数据组成训练样本,利用数理统计或机器学习理论分析数据,构建特征函数表示物种在生态位空间的实际生态位.以生态位模型预测物种潜在分布地或计算物种间的生态位重叠等研究,在生态学、生物地理学和进化生物学研究中显得越来越重要.本文从生态位概念出发,详细解析了生态位模型的理论基础、相关的焦点争论、使用时的注意点以及可能的发展方向与面临的挑战,指出模型中要考虑人类活动对物种生态位的影响.希望本文所探讨的本领域最新的争论焦点能引起相关学者的关注与深入思考.  相似文献
10.
One of the central goals of community ecology is to understand the forces that maintain species diversity within communities. The traditional niche-assembly theory asserts that species live together in a community only when they differ from one another in resource uses. But this theory has some difficulties in explaining the diversity often observed in specie-rich communities such as tropical forests. As an alternative to the niche theory, Hubbell and other ecologists introduced a neutral model. Hubbell argues that the number of species in a community is controlled by species extinction and immigration or speciation of new species. Assuming that all individuals of all species in a trophically similar community are ecologically equivalent, Hubbell’s neutral theory predicts two important statistical distributions. One is the asymptotic log-series distribution for the metacommunities under point mutation speciation, and the other is the zero-sum multinomial distribution for both local communities under dispersal limitation and metacommunities under random fission speciation. Unlike the niche-assembly theory, the neutral theory takes similarity in species and individuals as a starting point for investigating species diversity. Based on the fundamental processes of birth, death, dispersal and speciation, the neutral theory provided the first mechanistic explanation of species abundance distribution commonly observed in natural communities. Since the publication of the neutral theory, there has been much discussion about it, pro and con. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in the assumption, prediction and speciation mode of the neutral theory, including progress in the theory itself, tests about the assumption of the theory, prediction and speciation mode at the metacommunity level. We also suggest that the most important task in the future is to bridge the niche-assembly theory and the neutral theory, and to add species differences to the neutral theory and more stochasticity to the niche theory. __________ Translated from Journal of Plant Ecology, 2006, 30(5): 868–877 [译自:植物生态学报]  相似文献
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