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利用PVC顶盖埋管原位培育法测定了北京东灵山地区一个油松纯林和一个油松-辽东栎落叶阔叶混交林生态系统土壤无机氮库、氮素净矿化/硝化速率的季节动态以及年度净矿化/硝化量。结果发现1)两个生态系统的土壤无机氮库和氮素净矿化/硝化速率都存在比较明显且比较一致的季节动态,但个别时期也存在较大差异;2)纯林与混交林土壤NH  相似文献
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利用PVC管顶盖埋管原位培育法测定了东灵山顶亚高山草甸 (紫苞风毛菊 (SaussureaiodostegiaHonce) 丝柄苔草 (CarexcapillarisL .)_箭叶锦鸡儿 (Caraganajubata (Pall.Poir.) )灌丛_硕桦林 (BetulacostataTrautv .)演替序列中土壤有机N的年度净矿化与硝化作用 ,并以之作为土壤供氮能力的指标 ,比较了锦鸡儿灌丛与硕桦林和草甸土壤的供氮能力和维持氮素的能力。结果表明 ,3个生态系统土壤无机氮库 (包括NH 4 N和NO-3 _N)及净N矿化与硝化速率都存在明显的季节变化 ;除 1996年 6月硕桦林 (P <0 .0 1)和草甸NH 4_N显著高于锦鸡儿灌丛 (P <0 .0 1) ,1996年 8月锦鸡儿灌丛NO-3 _N显著高于草甸 (P <0 .0 5 )外 ,在不同取样时期无机氮库大小在 3个生态系统之间都不存在显著差异 ;锦鸡儿灌丛每公顷的年度总矿化量 (16 .0 1kg·hm-2 )高于硕桦林 (12 .0 5kg·hm-2 )和草甸 (1.6 4kg·hm-2 ) ;净硝化量 (11.37kg·hm-2 )略高于草甸 (10 .90kg·hm-2 ) ,低于硕桦林 (14.36kg·hm-2 )。尽管锦鸡儿灌丛土壤无机氮含量 ,矿化、硝化速率并不明显高于硕桦林和草甸 ,但其总年度净矿化量最高 ,所以锦鸡儿灌丛土壤的供氮能力在 3个群落中最强。此外 ,由于锦鸡儿灌丛的总年度硝化量低于硕桦林 ,略高于草甸 ,因此 ,锦鸡儿灌  相似文献
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Studies in unpolluted, old-growth forests in the coastal range of southern Chile (42°30′S) can provide a baseline for understanding how forest ecosystems are changing due to the acceleration of nitrogen (N) inputs that has taken place over the last century. Chilean temperate forests, in contrast to their northern hemisphere counterparts, exhibit extremely low losses of inorganic N to stream waters. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine whether low inorganic N outputs in these forests were due to low rates of N mineralization or nitrification, and (b) to examine how biodiversity (defined as number of dominant tree species) and forest structure influence N mineralization and overall patterns of N cycling. Studies were conducted in a species-poor, conifer-dominated (Fitzroya cupressoides) forest with an even-aged canopy, and in a mixed-angiosperm (Nothofagus nitida) forest with a floristically more diverse and unstable canopy. Nitrogen mineralization rates measured in laboratory assays varied seasonally, reaching 6.0 μg N/g DW/day in both forests during late summer. Higher values were related to higher microbial activity, larger pools of labile inorganic N, and increased fine litter inputs. Field assays, conducted monthly, indicated positive net flux from N mineralization mainly from December to January in both forests. Annual net flux of N from mineralization varied from 20 to 23 kg/ha/year for the Fitzroya forest and from 31 to 37 kg/ha/year for the Nothofagus forest. Despite low losses of inorganic N to streams, N mineralization and nitrification are not inhibited in these forests, implying the existence of strong sinks for NO3 in the ecosystem. Field N mineralization rates were two times higher in the Nothofagus forest than in the Fitzroya forest, and correlated with greater N input via litterfall, slightly higher soil pH, and narrower carbon (C)–nitrogen ratios of soils and litter in the former. Differences in N mineralization between the two forest types are attributed to differences in biotic structure, stand dynamics, and site factors. Median values of net N mineralization rates in these southern hemisphere forests were lower than median rates for forests in industrialized regions of North America, such as the eastern and central USA. We suggest that these high N mineralization rates may be a consequence of enhanced atmospheric N deposition.  相似文献
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