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1.
禾草-内生真菌共生体在草地农业系统中的作用   总被引:24,自引:3,他引:21       下载免费PDF全文
南志标  李春杰 《生态学报》2004,24(3):605-616
综述了国内外近年对禾草 -内生真菌 (N eotyphodium)的研究进展。全世界现已报道 14种禾草内生真菌 ,与 2 3个属的禾草形成共生体 ,我国已在 13属 2 5种天然草地禾草中发现内生真菌 ,其中发草属 (Descampsia)、大麦属 (H ord eum)和赖草属(L eymus)以往在国际文献中未曾报道。内生真菌在禾草体内产生的生物碱 ,致使采食带菌禾草的马、牛、羊、鹿等家畜产生中毒症状 ,每年给美国、新西兰等国造成的经济损失达 6.4亿美元之多 ,对其毒理研究取得了进展。已发现我国醉马草 (Achnatheruminebrians)对家畜的毒性与内生真菌的侵染有关。内生真菌侵染增加可使禾草对 42种害虫的抗性 ,并可增加对某些线虫和病害的抗性。与不带菌禾草相比 ,带菌禾草的另一特点是抗逆性强 ,牧草产量高。国际在该领域的研究主要集中在多年生黑麦草(L olium p erenne)和高羊茅 (Festuca arundinacea)。我国的研究发现 ,带菌布顿大麦草 (H ordeum bodg anii)和圆柱披碱草(Elymus cylind ricus)的牧草产量分别增加 3 3 .3 %和 2 78.8% ,分孽数分别增加 13 6.8%和 84.5%。目前 ,国际研究的重点包括大规模开展内生真菌生物学与生态学特性的研究 ,创造不含对家畜有害毒素的有益禾草 -内生真菌共生体 ,培育带内生真菌的草坪草品种 ,培育抗毒  相似文献
2.
Actions of Tremorgenic Fungal Toxins on Neurotransmitter Release   总被引:17,自引:15,他引:2  
The neurochemical effects of the tremorgenic mycotoxins Verruculogen and Penitrem A, which produce a neurotoxic syndrome characterised by sustained tremors, were studied using sheep and rat synaptosomes. The toxins were administered in vivo, either by chronic feeding (sheep) or intraperitoneal injection 45 min prior to killing (rat), and synaptosomes were subsequently prepared from cerebrocortical and spinal cord/medullary regions of rat, and corpus striatum of sheep. Penitrem A (400 mg mycelium/kg) increased the spontaneous release of endogenous glutamate, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and aspartate by 213%, 455%, and 277%, respectively, from cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Verruculogen (400 mg mycelium/kg) increased the spontaneous release of glutamate and aspartate by 1300% and 1200%, respectively, but not that of GABA from cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The spontaneous release of the transmitter amino acids or other amino acids was not increased by the tremorgens in spinal cord/medullary synaptosomes. Penitrem A pretreatment reduced the veratrine (75 microM) stimulated release of glutamate, aspartate, and GABA from cerebrocortical synaptosomes by 33%, 46%, and 11%, respectively, and the stimulated release of glycine and GABA from spinal cord/medulla synaptosomes by 67% and 32% respectively. Verruculogen pretreatment did not alter the veratrine-induced release of transmitter amino acids from cerebrocortex and spinal cord/medulla synaptosomes. Penitrem A pretreatment increased the spontaneous release of aspartate, glutamate, and GABA by 68%, 62%, and 100%, respectively, from sheep corpus striatum synaptosomes but did not alter the synthesis and release of dopamine in this tissue. Verruculogen was shown to cause a substantial increase (300-400%) in the miniature-end-plate potential (m.e.p.p.) frequency at the locust neuromuscular junction. The response was detectable within 1 min, rose to a maximum within 5-7 min, and declined to the control rate over a similar period. No change in the amplitude of the m.e.p.p.'s was observed. These effects of the tremorgens on transmitter release are interpreted in terms of their mode of action.  相似文献
3.
赭曲霉毒素 A 的高灵敏时间分辨荧光免疫分析   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
采用时间分辨荧光免疫分析 (TRFIA) 技术建立快速的高灵敏度的赭曲霉毒素 A (OTA) 全自动检测方法 . 将 OTA-BSA 作为免疫分子免疫 Balb/c 小鼠, OTA-KLH 为筛选用抗原包被板,用间接酶联免疫分析 (ELISA) 法筛选出专一针对 OTA 的高效价的阳性克隆 3G9 ,用杂交瘤细胞制备抗 OTA 单克隆抗体 . 用 OTA-BSA 包被 96 孔板为固相抗原,与游离 OTA 共同竞争有限的抗 OTA 单克隆抗体,以稀土离子 Eu3+ 标记的羊抗鼠抗体进行示踪,采用间接竞争免疫分析方法在解离增强荧光免疫分析体系中建立 OTA-TRFIA. 该方法的灵敏度为 0.03 μg /L ,测量范围为 0.03 ~1 000 μg /L ,批内和批间变异分别为 3.7% 和 5.3% ,平均回收率为 94.2% ,与赭曲霉毒素 B 的平均交叉反应为 3.7% ,与黄曲霉毒素 B1 、 牛血清白蛋白和苯基丙氨酸无交叉反应,说明抗体的特异性很好 . 8 条不同时间进行的间接竞争 OTA-TRFIA 的效应点均值 ED80 、 ED50 、 ED20 分别为 (0.33±0.02) μg /L、 (1.44 ±0.08) μg /L 和 (5.22 ± 0.12) μg /L ,说明方法的稳定性好,样品经 TRFIA 和 ELISA 试剂盒同时检测 OTA ,两者的相关系数为 0.925 ,结果相符 . 研究表明, OTA-TRFIA 是目前报道的 OTA 检测中最灵敏的方法,该分析方法稳定性好,可测范围宽,具有很好的应用前景 .  相似文献
4.
玉米大斑病菌Ht—毒素的萃取及其致病活性   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
采用体外(in vitro)固体和液体培养玉米大斑病菌——大斑病长晨蠕孢(Helminthosporium turcicum),培养物经有机溶剂萃取后减压蒸发获得了Ht-粗毒素,最后用种子根伸长抑制,离体根冠细胞死亡和离体叶片致萎等生物测定法,对玉米大斑病菌的体外代谢产物进行了致病活性和毒性测定,筛选出乙腈等有机溶剂,可以用于Ht-毒素的萃取,为Ht-毒素的进一步提纯和结构分析奠定了基础。  相似文献
5.
Molecular biology of mycotoxin biosynthesis   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by many important phytopathogenic and food spoilage fungi including Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species. The toxicity of four of the most agriculturally important mycotoxins (the trichothecenes, and the polyketide-derived mycotoxins; aflatoxins, fumonisins and sterigmatocystin) are discussed and their chemical structure described. The steps involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin and the experimental techniques used in the cloning and molecular characterisation of the genes involved in the pathway are described in detail. The biosynthetic genes involved in the fumonisin and trichothecene biosynthetic pathways are also outlined. The potential benefits gained from an increased knowledge of the molecular organisation of these pathways together with the mechanisms involved in their regulation are also discussed.  相似文献
6.
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces IgA hyperelevation and mesangial IgA deposition in mice that mimics the early stages of human IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Among potential mediators of this disease, interleukin-6 (IL-6) is likely to play a particularly critical role in IgA elevation and disease exacerbation. Based on previous findings that dietary fish oil (FO) suppresses DON-induced IgAN, we hypothesized that FO inhibits the induction of IL-6 expression by this mycotoxin in vivo and in vitro. Mice were fed modified AIN 93G diet amended with 7% corn oil (CO) or with 1% corn oil plus 6% menhaden fish oil (FO) for up to 8 weeks and then exposed acutely to DON by oral gavage. DON-induced plasma IL-6 and splenic mRNA elevation in FO-fed mice were significantly suppressed after 8 weeks when compared to the CO-fed group. The effects of FO on phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), critical upstream transducers of IL-6 up-regulation, were also assessed. DON-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (JNK1/2) was significantly suppressed in spleens of mice fed with FO, whereas p38 was not. Splenic COX-2 mRNA expression, which has been previously shown to enhance DON-induced IL-6, was also significantly decreased by FO, whereas plasma levels of the COX-2 metabolite, prostaglandin E2, were not affected. To confirm in vivo findings, the effects of pretreatment with the two primary n-3 PUFAs in FO, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5[n-3]; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (22:6[n-3]; DHA), on DON-induced IL-6 expression were assessed in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Consistent with the in vivo findings, both EPA and DHA significantly suppressed IL-6 superinduction by DON, as well as impaired DON-induced ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (20:4[n-3]) had markedly less effects on these MAPKs. Taken together, the capacity of FO and its component n-3 PUFAs to suppress IL-6 expression as well as ERK 1/2 and JNK 1/2 activation might explain, in part, the reported suppressive effects of these lipids on DON-induced IgA nephropathy.  相似文献
7.
研究分析了大豆连作、轮作土壤微生物区系,发现连作大豆根际土壤真菌富集,以其优势真菌回接大豆.紫青霉菌(Penicilliumpurpurogenum)能强烈抑制大豆生长发育.在实验室条件下分离获得该菌产生的毒素粗结晶,5μg·ml-1水培液中即可观察到大豆根系受害,根毛很少生长;30μg·ml-1水培液中大豆主根褐变严重,侧根几乎不再生长;200μg·ml-1导致一些大豆品种幼苗在2周内死亡这些结果表明,连作大豆土壤中该菌的大量存在及其产生的毒素是大豆连作障碍产生的主要因素.  相似文献
8.
Investigation of the electrophysiological properties of enniatins   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Enniatins are cyclohexadepsipeptides produced by various species of the genus Fusarium, and are known to have ionophoric, antibiotic, and in vitro hypolipidaemic properties. With the patch clamp technique in the inside-out mode it could be shown that enniatin easily incorporates into the cell membrane in which it forms cation-selective pores. This feature is characterized by unitary transitions to conductance levels typical for channels, ion selectivity, rectification, conductivity in the pS range, and block. A model of vertically stacked enniatin molecules that form sandwich complexes is suggested. Like gramicidin enniatin is a passive channel. Single channel properties for the isomers enniatin A1, B, and B1 differed from each other. This implies an influence of the substituted moieties on the complexation of cations. Electrical activity was followed by changes in intracellular ion concentrations, which are consistent with depolarization of the membrane resting potential, shortening of action potential duration, and reduced contractility.  相似文献
9.
Assessment of toxigenic fungi on Argentinean medicinal herbs   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
This work was performed to determine the incidence of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins on 152 dried medicinal and aromatic herbs, belonging to 56 species, which are used as raw material for drugs. International methodologies for fungal enumeration and identification were applied as well as TLC and HPLC techniques for toxins detection. The 52% out of 152 samples were contaminated with species from Aspergillus genus, 27% belonging to the Flavi section and 25% to the Circumdati section. The 16% of the total samples was contaminated with species from Fusarium genus. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus (Flavi section), were the predominant species isolated, 50% out of 40 isolates were toxigenic. Aflatoxin concentrations ranged from 10 to 2000 ng/g. Only 26% of isolates from the Circumdati section (A. alliaceus, A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum) produced ochratoxin A in low concentrations between 0.12 and 9 ng/g. From a total of 29 strains of Fusarium spp., 27.5% were Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which produced fumonisin Bland fumonisin B2 ranged from 20 to 22000 microg/g and from 5 to 3000 microg/g respectively. The remaining species, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. compactum, F. sombucinum and F. solani were able to produce neither group A and B trichothecenes nor zearalenone. The incidence of A. ochraceus and Fusarium spp. and their toxigenic capacities on medicinal herbs were studied for the first time in Argentina. It would be important to look for natural contamination to define acceptability Limits which allow the control of sanitary quality of medicinal herbs used as phytotherapic medicines in several countries.  相似文献
10.
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