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Acral melanoma is a rare melanoma subtype with distinct epidemiological, clinical and genetic features. To determine if acral melanoma cell lines are representative of this melanoma subtype, six lines were analysed by whole-exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridisation. We demonstrate that the cell lines display a mutation rate that is comparable to that of published primary and metastatic acral melanomas and observe a mutational signature suggestive of UV-induced mutagenesis in two of the cell lines. Mutations were identified in oncogenes and tumour suppressors previously linked to melanoma including BRAF, NRAS, KIT, PTEN and TP53, in cancer genes not previously linked to melanoma and in genes linked to DNA repair such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Our findings provide strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that acral melanoma cell lines and acral tumours share genetic features in common and that these cells are therefore valuable tools to investigate the biology of this aggressive melanoma subtype. Data are available at: http://rock.icr.ac.uk/collaborations/Furney_et_al_2012/.  相似文献
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Singleton-Merten syndrome, a critical and rare multifactorial disorder that is closely linked to R516Q mutation in MDA5 protein associated with an enhanced interferon response in the affected individual. In the present study, we provide conclusive key evidence on R516Q mutation and their connectivity towards sequence-structural basis dysfunction of MDA5 protein. Among the various mutations, we found R516Q is the most pathogenic mutation based on mutational signature Q-A-[RE]-G-R-[GA]-R-A-[ED]-[DE]-S-[ST]-Y-[TSAV]-L-V designed from our work. Further, we derived a distant ortholog for this mutational signature from which we identified 343 intra-residue interactions that fall communally in the position required to maintain the structural and functional integration of protein architecture. This identification served us to understand the critical role of hot spots in residual aggregation that holds a native form of folding conformation in the functional region. In addition, the long-range molecular dynamics simulation demarcated the residual dependencies of conformational transition in distinct regions (L29360–370α18, α19380–410L31, α21430–480L33-α22-L35 and α24510–520L38) occurring upon R516Q mutation. Together, our results emphasise that the dislocation of functional hot spots Pro229, Arg414, Val498, Met510, Ala513, Gly515 and Arg516 in MDA5 protein which is important for interior structural packing and fold arrangements. In a nutshell, our findings are perfectly conceded with other experimental reports and will have potential implications in immune therapeutical advancement for rare singleton-merten syndrome.  相似文献
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Genomic instability is a driving force in the natural history of blood cancers including multiple myeloma,an incurable neoplasm of immunoglobulin producing plasma cells that reside in the hematopoietic bone marrow. Long recognized manifestations of genomic instability in myeloma at the cytogenetic level include abnormal chromosome numbers (aneuploidy) caused by trisomy of odd-numbered chromosomes; recurrent oncogene-activating chromosomal translocations that involve immunoglobulin loci; and large-scale amplifications, inversions, and insertions / deletions (indels). Catastrophic genetic rearrangements that either shatter and illegitimately reassemble a single chromosome (chromotripsis) or lead to disordered segmental rearrangements of multiple chromosomes (chromoplexy) also occur. Genomic instability at the nucleotide level results in base substitution mutations and small indels that affect both the coding and non-coding genome. Distinctive signatures of somatic mutations that can be attributed to defects in DNA repair pathways, the DNA damage response or aberrant activity of mutator genes including members of the APOBEC family have been identified. Here we review recent findings on genomic stability control in myeloma that are not only relevant for myeloma development and progression, but also underpin disease relapse and acquisition of drug resistance in patients with myeloma.  相似文献
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Maintenance of genomic integrity in tissue-specific stem cells is critical for tissue homeostasis and the prevention of deleterious diseases such as cancer. Stem cells are subject to DNA damage induced by endogenous replication mishaps or exposure to exogenous agents. The type of DNA lesion and the cell cycle stage will invoke different DNA repair mechanisms depending on the intrinsic DNA repair machinery of a cell. Inappropriate DNA repair in stem cells can lead to cell death, or to the formation and accumulation of genetic alterations that can be transmitted to daughter cells and so is linked to cancer formation. DNA mutational signatures that are associated with DNA repair deficiencies or exposure to carcinogenic agents have been described in cancer. Here we review the most recent findings on DNA repair pathways activated in epithelial tissue stem and progenitor cells and their implications for cancer mutational signatures. We discuss how deep knowledge of early molecular events leading to carcinogenesis provides insights into DNA repair mechanisms operating in tumours and how these could be exploited therapeutically.  相似文献
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The CRISPR/Cas9 system and related RNA‐guided endonucleases can introduce double‐strand breaks (DSBs) at specific sites in the genome, allowing the generation of targeted mutations in one or more genes as well as more complex genomic rearrangements. Modifications of the canonical CRISPR/Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes and the introduction of related systems from other bacteria have increased the diversity of genomic sites that can be targeted, providing greater control over the resolution of DSBs, the targeting efficiency (frequency of on‐target mutations), the targeting accuracy (likelihood of off‐target mutations) and the type of mutations that are induced. Although much is now known about the principles of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, the likelihood of different outcomes is species‐dependent and there have been few comparative studies looking at the basis of such diversity. Here we critically analyse the activity of CRISPR/Cas9 and related systems in different plant species and compare the outcomes in animals and microbes to draw broad conclusions about the design principles required for effective genome editing in different organisms. These principles will be important for the commercial development of crops, farm animals, animal disease models and novel microbial strains using CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome‐editing tools.  相似文献
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