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1.
Selenium and selenoproteins in the brain and brain diseases   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Over the past three decades, selenium has been intensively investigated as an antioxidant trace element. It is widely distributed throughout the body, but is particularly well maintained in the brain, even upon prolonged dietary selenium deficiency. Changes in selenium concentration in blood and brain have been reported in Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors. The functions of selenium are believed to be carried out by selenoproteins, in which selenium is specifically incorporated as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Several selenoproteins are expressed in brain, but many questions remain about their roles in neuronal function. Glutathione peroxidase has been localized in glial cells, and its expression is increased surrounding the damaged area in Parkinson's disease and occlusive cerebrovascular disease, consistent with its protective role against oxidative damage. Selenoprotein P has been reported to possess antioxidant activities and the ability to promote neuronal cell survival. Recent studies in cell culture and gene knockout models support a function for selenoprotein P in delivery of selenium to the brain. mRNAs for other selenoproteins, including selenoprotein W, thioredoxin reductases, 15-kDa selenoprotein and type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, are also detected in the brain. Future research directions will surely unravel the important functions of this class of proteins in the brain.  相似文献
2.
脑疾病与游离氨基酸的研究   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
脑疾病包括肝性脑病 (或肝昏迷 ) ,乙型脑炎 ,儿童智力发育不全 ,脑瘫 ,新生儿缺氧缺血脑病以及脑衰老等。研究结果说明 :( 1 )肝性脑病 (或肝昏迷 )和乙型脑炎患者体液中谷氨酰胺水平升高 ,这种升高可以作为以上两种疾病的早期诊断 ;( 2 )脑瘫 ,智力发育不全以及脑衰老 (动物 )等患者 ,体液中谷氨酸浓度降低而r 氨基酸 (GABA)浓度升高 ,它们可以作为评价大脑损伤程度的指标 ,同时也有早期诊断这些疾病的价值 ;( 3)适当补充必需氨基酸能控制以上各种脑疾病的发展。  相似文献
3.
In spite of the rapid advances in the development of the new proteomic technologies, there are, to date, relatively fewer studies aiming to explore the neuronal proteome. One of the reasons is the complexity of the brain, which presents high cellular heterogeneity and a unique subcellular compartmentalization. Therefore, tissue fractionation of the brain to enrich proteins of interest will reduce the complexity of the proteomics approach leading to the production of manageable and meaningful results. In this review, general considerations and strategies of proteomics, the advantages and challenges to exploring the neuronal proteome are described and summarized. In addition, this article presents an overview of recent advances of proteomic technologies and shows that proteomics can serve as a valuable tool to globally explore the changes in brain proteome during various disease states. Understanding the molecular basis of brain function will be extremely useful in identifying novel targets for the treatment of brain diseases.  相似文献
4.
Guo X  Geng M  Du G 《Biochemical genetics》2005,43(3-4):175-187
Facilitative glucose transport is mediated by one or more of the members of the closely related glucose transporter (GLUT) family. Thirteen members of the GLUT family have been described thus far. GLUT1 is a widely expressed isoform that provides many cells with their basic glucose requirement. It is also the primary transporter across the blood-brain barrier. This review describes the distribution and expression of GLUT1 in brain in different pathophysiological conditions including Alzheimers disease, epilepsy, ischemia, or traumatic brain injury. Recent investigations show that GLUT1 mediates the transport of some neuroactive drugs, such as glycosylated neuropeptides, low molecular weight heparin, and d-glucose derivatives, across the blood-brain barrier as a delivery system. By utilizing such highly specific transport mechanisms, it should be possible to establish strategies to regulate the entry of candidate drugs.  相似文献
5.
The recent identification of mutations in genes encoding demonstrated or putative glycosyltransferases has revealed a novel mechanism for congenital muscular dystrophy. Hypoglycosylated alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) is commonly seen in Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), and Large(myd) mice. POMGnT1 and POMTs, the gene products responsible for MEB and WWS, respectively, synthesize unique O-mannose sugar chains on alpha-DG. The function of fukutin, the gene product responsible for FCMD, remains undetermined. Here we show that fukutin co-localizes with POMGnT1 in the Golgi apparatus. Direct interaction between fukutin and POMGnT1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and two-hybrid analyses. The transmembrane region of fukutin mediates its localization to the Golgi and participates in the interaction with POMGnT1. Y371C, a missense mutation found in FCMD, retains fukutin in the ER and also redirects POMGnT1 to the ER. Finally, we demonstrate reduced POMGnT1 enzymatic activity in transgenic knock-in mice carrying the retrotransposal insertion in the fukutin gene, the prevalent mutation in FCMD. From these findings, we propose that fukutin forms a complex with POMGnT1 and may modulate its enzymatic activity.  相似文献
6.
Protein O-mannose beta1,2-N-acetyglucosaminyltransferase 1 (POMGnT1) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of O-mannosyl glycans. Mutations of POMGnT1 in humans result in the muscle-eye-brain (MEB) disease. In this study, we have characterized a null mutation generated by gene trapping with a retroviral vector inserted into the second exon of the mouse POMGnT1 locus. Expression of POMGnT1 mRNA was abolished in mutant mice. Glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan was also reduced. POMGnT1 mutant mice were viable with multiple developmental defects in muscle, eye, and brain, similar to the phenotypes observed in human MEB disease. The present study provides the first genetic animal model to further dissect the roles of POMGnT1 in MEB disease.  相似文献
7.
Guo J  Cheng H  Zhao S  Yu L 《FEBS letters》2006,580(2):581-584
Here, we report the identification of a novel domain--GG (domain in KIAA1199, FAM3, POMGnT1 and Tmem2 proteins, with two well-conserved glycine residues), present in eukaryotic FAM3 superfamily (FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D), POMGnT1 (protein O-linked mannose beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase), TEM2 proteins as well as phage gp35 proteins. GG domain has been revealed to be implicated in muscle-eye-brain disease and non-syndromic hearing loss. The presence of GG domain in Bacteriophage gp35 hinge connector of long tail fiber might reflect the horizontal gene transfer from organisms. And we proposed that GG domain might function as important structural element in phage LTF.  相似文献
8.
Protein O-linked mannose beta1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (POMGnT1) catalyzes the transfer of GlcNAc to O-mannose of glycoproteins. Mutations in the POMGnT1 gene cause a type of congenital muscular dystrophy called muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). We evaluated several truncated mutants of POMGnT1 to determine the minimal catalytic domain. Deletions of 298 amino acids in the N-terminus and 9 amino acids in the C-terminus did not affect POMGnT1 activity, while larger deletions on either end abolished activity. These data indicate that the minimal catalytic domain is at least 353 amino acids. Single amino acid substitutions in the stem domain of POMGnT1 from MEB patients abolished the activity of the membrane-bound form but not the soluble form. This suggests that the stem domain of the soluble form of POMGnT1 is unnecessary for activity, but that some amino acids play a crucial role in the membrane-bound form.  相似文献
9.
The identification of disease markers in human body fluids requires an extensive and thorough analysis of its protein constituents. In the present study, we have extended our analysis of the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome using protein prefractional followed by shotgun mass spectrometry. After the removal of abundant protein components from the mixture with the help of immunodepletion affinity chromatography, we used either anion exchange chromatography or sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to further subfractionate the proteins present in CSFs. Each protein subfraction was enzyme digested and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and the resulting data evaluated using the Spectrum Mill software. Different subfractionation methods resulted in the identification of a grant total of 259 proteins in CSF from a patient with normal pressure hydrocephalus. The greatest number of protein, 240 in total, were identified after prefractionating the CSF proteins by immunodepletion and SDS-PAGE. Immuno-depletion combined with anion exchange fractionation resulted in 112 proteins and 74 proteins were found when only immunodepletion of the CSF samples was carried out. All methods used showed a significant increase in the number of identified proteins as compared with nondepleted and unfractionated CSF sample analysis, which yielded only 38 protein identifications. The present work establishes a platform for future studies aimed at a detailed comparative proteome analysis of CSFs from different groups of patients suffering from various psychiatric and neurological disorders.  相似文献
10.
The dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is an assembly of proteins spanning the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle cells. Defects in the DGC appear to play critical roles in several muscular dystrophies due to disruption of basement membrane organization. O-mannosyl oligosaccharides on α-dystroglycan, a major extracellular component of the DGC, are essential for normal binding of α-dystroglycan to ligands (such as laminin) in the extracellular matrix and subsequent signal transmission to actin in the cytoskeleton of the muscle cell. Muscle-Eye-Brain disease (MEB) and Walker-Warburg Syndrome (WWS) have mutations in genes encoding glycosyltransferases needed for O-mannosyl oligosaccharide synthesis. Myodystrophic myd mice and humans with Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (FCMD), congenital muscular dystrophy due to defective fukutin-related protein (FKRP) and MDC1D have mutations in putative glycosyltransferases. These human congenital muscular dystrophies and the myd mouse are associated with defective glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. It is expected other congenital muscular dystrophies will prove to have mutations in genes involved in glycosylation. Published in 2004. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
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