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Human-caused habitat destruction, the major cause of species diversity losses, can be classified into two basic types, instantaneous destruction and continuous destruction. Thus, a universal model should be established to simulate and forecast the effects of different kinds of habitat destruction on species diversity during different historical periods. In this paper, we explore a multi-time-scale n-species model to study and compare species responses to instantaneous and continuous destruction. We find that (1) under instantaneous destruction, there are two different mechanisms of species extinction: one is a time-delayed deterministic extinction of superior competitors in order from the best to the poorest; the other is the extinction in a short time of inferior competitors. The survivors will experience three phases: decline, adjustment, and equilibrium. (2) When the total amounts of habitat destruction for both instantaneous and continuous cases are equal, the oscillation amplitudes of species abundances under instantaneous destruction are much greater than under continuous destruction, especially for inferior competitors, which make inferior competitors under instantaneous destruction more prone to stochastic extinction. Therefore instantaneous destruction is more detrimental to the survival of inferior competitors. (3) Under continuous destruction with habitat eventually being destroyed completely, there also are two types of species extinction mechanisms: the first is extinction in order from the best competitors to the poorest before complete destruction; the second is collective extinction due to complete destruction.  相似文献
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Habitat destruction can be classified into instantaneous destruction and continuous destruction by the different ways of human destroying habitat. Previous studies, however, always focused on instantaneous destruction. In this study, we develop a universal model, Multi-time scale N-species model, to study and compare the responses of metapopulation dynamics to both kinds of habitat destruction. The model explores that: (1) under instantaneous habitat destruction, species extinction is determined by the proportion of habitat destruction (D) and the structure of metapopulation (q). When D>q, species will go extinct ranked from the best competitor to the worst. When Dq, no species will go extinct, but the equilibrium abundances of odd-ranked competitors will decrease, and the equilibrium abundances of even-ranked competitors will increase; (2) under continuous destruction, species extinction is dependent on the speed of habitat destruction and the metapopulation structure. The higher the speed of habitat destruction and the bigger q are, the earlier species go extinct. Usually, there are two possible mechanisms of species extinction: one is that all species go extinct collectively following complete destruction, and the other is that species go extinct in ranked competitive order from best to worst, and the survivals, if they exist, will go extinct collectively following complete destruction. The oscillation amplitudes of inferior competitors are so large as to increase the probability of stochastic extinction under instantaneous destruction. Therefore, it is relatively propitious for the persistence of rare species under slow and continuous destruction, especially when continuous destruction stops.  相似文献
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