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从线粒体细胞色素b探讨长臀鲃属三个种分类与进化的关系   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
本研究测定了长臀属(MystacoleucusG櫣nther)中的3个种 :月斑长臀(M.chilopterusFowler)、长臀[M.marginatus(CuvieretValenciennes)]和细尾长臀(M.lepturusHuang)共22个个体的线粒体细胞色素b部分基因片段 ,其序列为408bp,并选用亚科(Acheilognathinae)中华(RhodeussinensisG櫣nther)及亚科(Barbinae)中的云南倒刺(Spinibarbus.denticulatusyunnanensisTsu)作为外群。结果表明 :细尾长臀与月斑长臀、长臀间存在遗传分化 ,分化程度与鲤科其它鱼类相似 ;而月斑长臀和长臀却无法分开。结果提示 ,月斑长臀和长臀很可能为同一个种。此外 ,长臀属与云南倒刺的亲缘关系较近 ,表明有争议的长臀属归入亚科是合理的。  相似文献
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本文通过对似类8属13种和外类群7属10种鱼类的比较研究,选取37个骨骼及外部特征,运用外类群比较法进行特征分析,根据分支系统学原理重建了似类的系统发育。特征分析和系统发育分析表明似类是具有许多共同离征的单系群,朝着流水性底栖生活和刮食性的主干方向发展;其中以似属最原始,胡属最特化构成7对姐妹群。蛇属是较早分化出的相对特化的类群,棒花鱼属和小鳔属的关系相对较远。  相似文献
3.
Brunettia bora spec. nov. is described from an area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil. It is the second species of Brunettia described from Brazil, although it is more similar to B. bistria Quate, 1996 from Costa Rica.  相似文献
4.
The Botiinae have traditionally represented a subfamily of the Cobitidae. At present, the classification and phylogenetic relationships of the Botiinae are controversial. To address systematic and phylogenetic questions concerning this group, we sequenced the complete cytochrome b gene from 34 samples, of which 24 represented 13 species of the East Asian botiine fishes, while the other 10 were non-botiine loach species. For the 1140 bp sequences determined, 494 sites were variable ones, of which 424 were parsimony informative. With Myxocyprinus asiaticus as an outgroup, molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. All molecular phylogenetic trees revealed that botiine fishes form a monophyletic group and are distantly related to other loaches, suggesting that the Botiinae should be placed in their own family. Within the Botiinae, there are three genera; Botia, Parabotia, andLeptobotia, each genus forming a monophyletic group, with the genus Botia as the most ancestral split. Our molecular results are in agreement with morphological analyses of botiines, suggesting that Botia is the ancestral genus, while Leptobotia and Parabotia were resolved as more derived sister groups.  相似文献
5.
Jaaska V 《Annals of botany》2005,96(6):1085-1096
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The phylogenetic relationships among 27 vetch species belonging to the subgenus Cracca of the genus Vicia were studied in comparison with three species of Lathyrus section Lathyrus on the basis of isozyme variation. METHODS: Isozymes encoded by 15 putative loci of ten enzymes were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isozyme variation was analysed by using parsimony and neighbour-joining methods. KEY RESULTS: The analyses revealed 63 parsimony-informative and 36 species-specific orthozymes. Of the latter, 23 are monomophic and are suitable for identification of V. benghalensis, V. palaestina, V. dumetorum, V. pisiformis, V. sylvatica, V. onobrychioides, V. cappadocica, V. cretica, V. articulata, V. tetrasperma, V. ervilia, V. hirsuta and V. loiseleurii. Polymorphism with heterozygous and homozygous isozyme genotypes was found for V. cracca, V. tenuifolia, V. ochroleuca, V. villosa, V. sylvatica, V. cassubica, V. sparsiflora, V. megalotropis, V. altissima, V. onobrychioides, V. cassia, V. cretica and L. heterophyllus, reflecting outcrossing in these species. By contrast, V. benghalensis, V. palaestina, V. disperma, V. dumetorum, V. pisiformis, V. orobus, V. pauciflora, V. tetrasperma and V. loiseleurii had only homozygous isozyme genotypes at polymorphic loci. Isozyme-based phylogenetic trees are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Sections Cracca, Ervum, Pedunculatae and Lenticula of traditional taxonomy are monophyletic groups, whereas sections Oroboideae (= Vicilla) and Panduratae appear polyphyletic and section Cassubicae is split into two species-couples linked at a low level of support. Treatment of ervoid species in a separate subgenus Ervum is not supported because of its polyphyly.  相似文献
6.
As part of our ongoing phylogenetic study of genusHypericum, nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences were analyzed for 36 species ofHypericum as ingroup and two species ofThornea as outgroup. This sampling included most of the previously described species from both Korea and Japan. The ITS phylogeny suggested that the surveyedHypericum species belong to a monophyletic section,Trigynobrathys, and a polyphyletic section,Hypericum. In addition, two monotypic sections,Sampsonia andRoscyna, were identified. Members of sectionHypericum occur in four different lineages worldwide, which imply at least four independent origins. The Korean and Japanese species of sectionHypericum form a monophyletic group, except forH. vulcanicum. Instead, that particular species belongs to a distinct monophyletic group withH. scoreri andH. formosa from other geographic areas, and is a sister to sectionTrigynobrathys. The Korean and Japanese species of sectionTrigynobrathys show a monophyletic origin.H. sampsonii is now recognized as a distinct section rather than being a member of sectionsHypericum orDrosocarpium, as had been indicated previously. Our results differ somewhat from those of recent morphological and cytological studies. The phylogenetic relationships among Korean and Japanese species have now been mostly resolved via ITS phylogeny.  相似文献
7.
瑞香属和荛花属为瑞香科瑞香亚科的落叶或常绿灌木,中国西南部是瑞香属和荛花属的重要分化中心。全世界共有瑞香属95种、荛花属70种,中国分布有瑞香属52种、荛花属49种。瑞香属和荛花属的分类学研究一直存在不同程度的分歧。花盘形状和果实类型在传统分类中一直是区分瑞香属和荛花属的典型特征,而花盘形态和果实类型在2个属中存在交叉和过渡,部分植物分类学家根据这些特征将两个属进行过不同程度的归并。该研究采用数量分类法对瑞香属77种(变种)和荛花属62种(变种)植物,选取32个形态学性状进行聚类分析和主成分分析。结果表明:聚类分析和主成分分析均显示两属均未形成单系类群。在主成分分析中,前3个主成分分析的贡献值为35.56%,传统分类中用来区分两属的花盘形状、叶序及果实类型等特征对前3个主成分贡献相对较小,因此,传统分类学中对这两个属进行区分的性状并没有典型的分类学意义。同时,聚类图和主成分分析得到的散点图均不能将这两个属区分开来。数量分类研究结果显示两属植物存在明显的交叉,支持瑞香属和荛花属不是两个独立自然类群的观点。  相似文献
8.
秋海棠属是世界有花植物第六大属,是被子植物分类困难的类群之一,亟需增加形态性状的比较研究,以便于今后对该属开展分类学修订。该研究选取国产秋海棠属中较为常见的侧膜组、秋海棠组、单座组和二室组共21种,应用扫描电镜观察花粉微形态,探讨花粉形态对秋海棠属植物的分类学意义。结果表明:秋海棠属植物的花粉多为单粒花粉,辐射对称,等极,三孔沟,超长球形到长球形。选取9个稳定的花粉特征进行无序和不加权的性状编码,应用非线性多维标度分析对花粉特征矩阵进行聚类分析,结果支持这些组都不是单系类群需要重新修订,其中花粉边缘形状、极面观轮廓、萌发沟和花粉的外壁纹饰具有一定分类学意义,特别是塞缘特征具有重要的分类意义。根据塞缘特征可以将研究类群区分为2个类群:(A)无塞缘或塞缘光滑;(B)塞缘颗粒状。类群B中具规则颗粒状和精细颗粒状塞缘的种类聚在一起,而具粗糙颗粒状塞缘的种类位于类群A和B的中间,很可能是2个类群的过渡性状,这需要增加取样做进一步的研究。  相似文献
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