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An anticancer antibiotic, neocarzinostatin (NCS), was covalently conjugated to the murine monoclonal antibody A7 (mAb A7), which recognizes the glycoprotein on the cell surface of human colon cancer. The biological and pharmacological properties of the conjugate (A7-NCS) were examined and compared with those of unconjugated NCS. A7-NCS exhibited a strong binding and cytotoxicity to the cell and an antigen-specific tumor accumulation. Significant tumoricidal effects in vivo were observed in the antigen-positive tumor-bearing mice treated with A7-NCS, whereas NCS mixed with mAb A7 and NCS alone were relatively ineffective. In the antigennegative tumor, the tumoricidal effect of A7-NCS was lower than in the antigen-positive tumor. The NCS concentration in blood and tumor were significantly elevated by conjugation to mAb A7. The NCS localization in tumor was higher in the antigen-positive tumor than in the antigen-negative tumor. Death due to acute toxicity was observed at a dose of 20 units (U) NCS in mice treated with unconjugated NCS, whereas toxicity was seen with a much higher dose of NCS (100 U) if the drug was conjugated to the mAb. These findings show that mAb A7 confers more favorable pharmacological properties on an anticancer drug, making it potentially more useful for cancer chemotherapy.This work has been supported in part by a grant-in-aid for cancer research from the Ministry of Education and for the comprehensive 10-year strategy for cancer control from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan  相似文献
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The generation of the proteolytic enzyme plasmin from its inactive precursor plasminogen, mediated by so called plasminogen activators, is the essential step in thrombolytic therapy. Plasmin is responsible for the degradation of the insoluble fibrin, the major component of a thrombus, to soluble fibrin degradation products. So far, the use of the more recently developed thrombolytic agents single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were disappointing, mainly due to some of their negative propertiesin vivo, i.e., rapid inhibition and/or hepatic clearance. Besides some background information on the haemostatic balance; t-PA and scu-PA structure; and mechanisms of action, we here review some reported attempts to improve on these agents for thrombolytic therapy following various strategies. One of the more potential strategies, antibody-targeted thrombolytic therapy using bispecific monoclonal antibodies, is discussed somewhat more extensively, as are the several procedures that can befollowed for bispecific antibody preparation.  相似文献
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Summary Measurements in cancer patients showed that the pH of tumors averages 0.8 unit lower than that of the surrounding normal tissues, confirming published work. Based on this, the anti-carcinoma monoclonal antibody (mAb) L6 was used to prepare immunoconjugates with daunomycin (DM), the drug being released at the acidic pH of the tumor. A direct linking of the aconitic derivative of DM (AcoDM) to mAb L6 led to conjugates that either had a low drug/antibody ratio (<5:1) or precipitated in vitro. In order to increase the drug load and avoid precipitation, several biopolymers were tested as spacers between the drug and the L6. To attach the polymer derivative to the mAb, the former was maleimidized and the mAb was thiolated. The AcoM/mAb ratio obtained was 20, and the mAb retained its highly specific binding to tumor cells. At pH 6 the AcoDM-L6 conjugate was toxic to cultured C-3347 carcinoma cells with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5 µg/ml. The conjugate was less effective than the free DM with an IC50 of 0.2 µg/ml. The L6 alone was not toxic. At a tumor pH of 6.5, 15% of the AcoDM was released. The amount of released drug reached a maximum 24–48 h after exposure to the acidic medium.In vivo localization studies demonstrated a similar tumor uptake of the conjugate and mAb L6 with 18% of the injected dose/g tumor and a maximum uptake in tumor 48 h after injection. Our data indicate that it is possible to construct conjugates based on a pH-sensitive linker that can be targeted successfully to a tumor with release of a portion of the drug at the tumor site, but testing is needed to establish whether such release has anti-tumor activity in vivo and offers an advantage over treatment with unconjugated drug.  相似文献
4.
单克隆抗体凭借其特异性强、副作用较小的优点,越来越广泛地应用于疾病的诊断与治疗。单克隆抗体药物在血液系统恶性肿瘤的治疗中也发挥了重要作用。目前,经美国食品与药品管理局(FDA)批准用于治疗血液系统恶性肿瘤的单克隆抗体药物已有六种,在临床取得良好的治疗效果。单克隆抗体药物主要通过对肿瘤细胞的直接杀伤作用、抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒性反应(ADCC)、补体依赖性细胞毒性反应(CDC)和改变信号通路等机制达到治疗肿瘤的效果。另外,将单克隆抗体与放射性核素、化疗药物和毒素等偶联,用于肿瘤等疾病的靶向治疗研究,成为生物治疗领域的热点。该文对近年来国际上用于血液系统恶性肿瘤治疗的单克隆抗体药物进行了概括和总结,讨论了治疗性单克隆抗体药物存在的问题和应用前景。  相似文献
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Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder of the brain caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal sulfatase, arylsulfatase A (ASA). It is not possible to treat the brain in MLD with recombinant ASA, because the enzyme does not cross the blood‐brain barrier (BBB). In the present investigation, a BBB‐penetrating IgG‐ASA fusion protein is engineered and expressed, where the ASA monomer is fused to the carboxyl terminus of each heavy chain of an engineered monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb crosses the BBB via receptor‐mediated transport on the endogenous BBB insulin receptor, and acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the ASA into brain from blood. The HIRMAb‐ASA is expressed in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells grown in serum free medium, and purified by protein A affinity chromatography. The fusion protein retains high affinity binding to the HIR, EC50 = 0.34 ± 0.11 nM, and retains high ASA enzyme activity, 20 ± 1 units/mg. The HIRMAb‐ASA fusion protein is endocytosed and triaged to the lysosomal compartment in MLD fibroblasts. The fusion protein was radio‐labeled with the Bolton–Hunter reagent, and the [125I]‐HIRMAb‐ASA rapidly penetrates the brain in the Rhesus monkey following intravenous administration. Film and emulsion autoradiography of primate brain shows global distribution of the fusion protein throughout the monkey brain. These studies describe a new biological entity that is designed to treat the brain of humans with MLD following non‐invasive, intravenous infusion of an IgG‐ASA fusion protein. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1456–1465. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献
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