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Various explanations can be offered for the incongruence between phylogenetic hypotheses resulting from morphological and molecular data sets. Of these, the possibility that incongruence may result from the mutation of major morphogenetic genes leading to dramatic morphological divergence unaccompanied by equivalent change of the phylogenetic marker molecule(s) used is discussed in detail. As evidence for this hypothesis, several examples for such incongruence are surveyed. It seems possible that in many cases the genetic basis of the morphological characters responsible for the incongruence found may be simple, and that the genes involved may be homologous to genes known from mutant systems. It is suggested that: 1. the systematic documentation of incongruence between molecular and morphological phylogenies may help to assess the frequency of evolutionary change through the mutation of major morphogenetic genes, and that 2. the identification of major morphological characters distinguishing closely related taxa with mutant phenotypes known from mutant systems eventually may allow an experimental approach to the problem of evolutionary change resulting from major genes. Natural taxa suspected to be the result of such processes could be changed morphologically through transformation with the relevant genes.  相似文献   
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Capsella comprises diploid (C. grandiflora andC. rubella) and tetraploid taxa. It is argued that the tetraploidC. bursa-pastoris is of intraspecific origin despite disomic inheritance and fixed heterozygosity. It is of considerable age as evidenced by the fossil record and molecular data. Gene duplication by polyploidization and a mixed mating system provided the genetic flexibility for greatest colonizing success. Pronounced variation patterns at a micro- and macrogeographic scale are observed inC. bursa-pastoris for many characters including life history traits, leaf morphology and allozymes. This variation pattern can be explained by several components comprising phylogenetic age, random processes, ecotypic variation and colonization history. The adaptive strategy ofC. bursa-pastoris cannot be assigned to either ecotypic differentiation or phenotypic plasticity alone. It depends on the trait under study.Dedicated to emer. Univ.-Prof. DrFriedrich Ehrendorfer on the occasion of his 70th birthday  相似文献   
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Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (ATCC© 30935TM) is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (length ~ 25 μm) is characterized by surface microscales (0.3 μm tall) containing a circular porous base (~ 0.6 μm diam.) with a thin peripheral rim. Five radially arranged feet, emanating from the base, support a short central column terminating apically as a funnel‐shaped collar (~ 0.5 μm diam.) composed of five radial, trifurcate rays extending from the center toward a thin peripheral rim. The central spine is 0.5–0.6 μm long. The comparative morphologies and combined molecular genetic evidence, SSU‐rDNA and COI, indicate that the new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species.  相似文献   
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Structural data were combined with trnLF and internal transcribed spacer sequences from other studies and with new sequences representing ten additional species to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of Rhus s.s. These data indicate that Rhus s.s and both subgenera, Rhus and Lobadium, are monophyletic. The genus Rhus is supported as monophyletic by the presence of red glandular hairs on the berries and inflorescence axis, cilia on the sepals and glands on the leaf blades. Subgenus Rhus can be identified by the presence of more than seven resin channels in the petiole, weakly percurrent tertiary veins and a type I vascular system in the mid‐vein. Subgenus Lobadium is characterized by the presence of short bracteoles and pedicels. This subgenus is divided into four sections, Lobadium, Rhoeidium, Styphonia and Terebinthifolia. Section Lobadium has trifoliate leaves; section Rhoeidium is monotypic, including only Rhus microphylla; section Styphonia is supported by five synapomorphies, including an incomplete marginal vein, fibres in the petiole, a thick cuticle, two layers of palisade parenchyma and prismatic crystals in the mesophyll; and section Terebinthifolia has gelatinous xylary fibres in the petiole. Hypotheses about the evolutionary changes of these characters are presented based on the cladograms. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 176 , 452–468.  相似文献   
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Giribet, G. 2010. A new dimension in combining data? The use of morphology and phylogenomic data in metazoan systematics. —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91 : 11–19 Animal phylogenies have been traditionally inferred by using the character state information derived from the observation of a diverse array of morphological and anatomical features, but the incorporation of molecular data into the toolkit of phylogenetic characters has shifted drastically the way researchers infer phylogenies. A main reason for this is the ease at which molecular data can be obtained, compared to, e.g., traditional histological and microscopical techniques. Researchers now routinely use genomic data for reconstructing relationships among animal phyla (using whole genomes or Expressed Sequence Tags) but the amount of morphological data available to study the same phylogenetic patterns has not grown accordingly. Given the disparity between the amounts of molecular and morphological data, some authors have questioned entire morphological programs. In this review I discuss issues related to the combinability of genomic and morphological data, the informativeness of each set of characters, and conclude with a discussion of how morphology could be made scalable by utilizing new techniques that allow for non‐intrusive examination of large amounts of preserved museum specimens. Morphology should therefore remains a strong field in evolutionary and comparative biology, as it continues to provide information for inferring phylogenetic patterns, is an important complement for the patterns derived from the molecular data, and it is the common nexus that allows studying fossil taxa with large data sets of molecular data.  相似文献   
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Oreocharis duyunensis Z.Y. Li, X.G. Xiang et Z.Y. Guo (Gesneriaceae), endemic to Guizhou, China, is described as a new species. The new species is easily distinguished from other Oreocharis species by having a white, stellate ring‐like disc. Morphologically, the species is similar to Oreocharis chienii (Chun) Mich. Möller & A. Weber but differs by its densely white pilose leaves, mixed brown‐pilose, pubescent and glandular‐pubescent peduncle and pedicle, white stellate ring‐like disc, and linear‐lanceolate capsule. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction and interspecific genetic distances of nuclear ITS and chloroplast trnL‐F regions, O. duyunensis is a new species with uncertain phylogenetic position.  相似文献   
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近年浙江省杭州市余杭区温室大棚内番茄灰叶斑病发生为害严重,对当地番茄生产造成了较大的经济损失,但该病害的病原菌种类尚未在浙江报道。本文通过对病原菌形态学、分子系统学(r DNA-ITS、gpd和EF-1α基因的PCR扩增、序列分析和系统进化树的构建)和致病性测定相结合的研究,将侵染番茄的病原菌鉴定为番茄匍柄霉菌Stemphylium lycopersici。研究结果对制定该病害的防治决策和有效防治提供了科学理论依据。  相似文献   
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Despite their diversity and ecological importance, many areas of the SAR—Stramenopila, Alveolata, and Rhizaria—clade are poorly understood as the majority (90%) of SAR species lack molecular data and only 5% of species are from well‐sampled families. Here, we review and summarize the state of knowledge about the three major clades of SAR, describing the diversity within each clade and identifying synapomorphies when possible. We also assess the “dark area” of SAR: the morphologically described species that are missing molecular data. The majority of molecular data for SAR lineages are characterized from marine samples and vertebrate hosts, highlighting the need for additional research effort in areas such as freshwater and terrestrial habitats and “non‐vertebrate” hosts. We also describe the paucity of data on the biogeography of SAR species, and point to opportunities to illuminate diversity in this major eukaryotic clade. See also the video abstract here: https://youtu.be/_VUXqaX19Rw .  相似文献   
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