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Summary The G+C content of DNA varies widely in different organisms, especially microorganisms. This variation is accompanied by changes in the nucleotide composition of silent positions in codons. (Silent positions are defined and explained in the text.) These changes are mostly neutral or near neutral, and appear to result from mutation pressure in the direction of increasing either A+T (AT pressure) or G+C(GC pressure) content. Variations in G+C content are also accompanied by substitutions at replacement positions in codons. These substituions produce changes in the amino acid content of homologous proteins. The examples studied were genes for 13 mitochondrial proteins in five species, and A and B genes for bacterial tryptophan synthase in four species.In microorganisms, varying AT and GC mutational pressures, presumably resulting from shifts in the DNA polymerase system, exert strong effects on molecular evolution by changing the G+C content of DNA. These effects may be greater than those of random drift. The effects of GC pressure on silent substitutions in the systems examined are several times as great as the effects on replacement substitutions.GC pressure is exerted on noncoding as well as coding regions in mitochondrial DNA. This is shown by the close correlation (correlation coefficient, 0.99) of the G+C content of the noncoding D loop of mitochondria with the G+C content of silent positions in the corresponding mitochondrial genes.  相似文献
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We show that in animal mitochondria homologous genes that differ in guanine plus cytosine (G + C) content code for proteins differing in amino acid content in a manner that relates to the G + C content of the codons. DNA sequences were analyzed using square plots, a new method that combines graphical visualization and statistical analysis of compositional differences in both DNA and protein. Square plots divide codons into four groups based on first and second position A + T (adenine plus thymine) and G + C content and indicate differences in amino acid content when comparing sequences that differ in G + C content. When sequences are compared using these plots, the amino acid content is shown to correlate with the nucleotide bias of the genes. This amino acid effect is shown in all protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome, including cox I, cox II, and cyt b, mitochondrial genes which are commonly used for phylogenetic studies. Furthermore, nucleotide content differences are shown to affect the content of all amino acids with A + T- and G + C-rich codons. We speculate that phylogenetic analysis of genes so affected may tend erroneously to indicate relatedness (or lack thereof) based only on amino acid content. Received: 3 July 1996 / Accepted: 6 November 1996  相似文献
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甘蓝型油菜pol CMS育性恢复基因对orf224/atp6的转录调控   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12  
袁美  杨光圣  傅廷栋  李赟 《遗传学报》2003,30(5):469-473
用 10个线粒体基因探针对波里马细胞质雄性不育 (polimaCMS)三系 1141A(pol) ,1141B(nap)和 1141R(pol)的花蕾线粒体RNA进行了Northern检测。结果表明 ,只有 3个探针atp6、orf2 2 4和orf2 2 2检测到转录本的差异。atp6在可育的 1141B中只转录产生一个丰度很高的 1 1kb转录本 ,在雄性不育的 1141A和pol胞质恢复系 1141R中 ,这个转录本的丰度明显减少并出现了分子量较大的 2个转录本 2 2kb、1 9kb转录本。与 1141A相比 ,恢复系1141R的 2 2kb和 1 9kb转录本丰度明显减少 ,并伴随着两个新的转录本 1 4kb和 1 3kb。表明orf2 2 4 atp6的表达与polCMS有关 ,并且其转录受到恢复基因Rfp的调控。同时通过对杂种F1 ( 1141A× 1141R)与另一个恢复系RS35 (pol)的比较证实 ,Rfp对orf2 2 4 atp6的调控与Rfp纯合与否无关。orf2 2 4 atp6在 1141A的苗期叶片中还转录产生育性恢复特异的 1 4kb转录本 ,这可能与细胞核基因型和相对低温条件有关。  相似文献
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a late-onset dementia that is characterized by the loss of memory and an impairment of multiple cognitive functions. Advancements in molecular, cellular, and animal model studies have revealed that the formation of amyloid beta (Abeta) and other derivatives of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are key factors in cellular changes in the AD brain, including the generation of free radicals, oxidative damage, and inflammation. Recent molecular, cellular, and gene expression studies have revealed that Abeta enters mitochondria, induces the generation of free radicals, and leads to oxidative damage in post-mortem brain neurons from AD patients and in brain neurons from cell models and transgenic mouse models of AD. In the last three decades, tremendous progress has been made in mitochondrial research and has provided significant findings to link mitochondrial oxidative damage and neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. Researchers in the AD field are beginning to recognize the possible involvement of a mutant APP and its derivatives in causing mitochondrial oxidative damage in AD. This article summarizes the latest research findings on the generation of free radicals in mitochondria and provides a possible model that links Abeta proteins, the generation of free radicals, and oxidative damage in AD development and progression.  相似文献
6.
Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial COI from five deep-sea hydrothermal vent annelids provided insights into their dispersal modes and barriers to gene flow. These polychaetes inhabit vent fields located along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and Galapagos Rift (GAR), where hundreds to thousands of kilometers can separate island-like populations. Long-distance dispersal occurs via larval stages, but larval life histories differ among these taxa. Mitochondrial gene flow between populations of Riftia pachyptila, a siboglinid worm with neutrally buoyant lecithothrophic larvae, is diminished across the Easter Microplate region, which lies at the boundary of Indo-Pacific and Antarctic deep-sea provinces. Populations of the siboglinid Tevnia jerichonana are similarly subdivided. Oasisia alvinae is not found on the southern EPR, but northern EPR populations of this siboglinid are subdivided across the Rivera Fracture Zone. Mitochondrial gene flow of Alvinella pompejana, an alvinellid with large negatively buoyant lecithotrophic eggs and arrested embryonic development, is unimpeded across the Easter Microplate region. Gene flow in the polynoid Branchipolynoe symmytilida also is unimpeded across the Easter Microplate region. However, A. pompejana populations are subdivided across the equator, whereas B. symmitilida populations are subdivided between the EPR and GAR axes. The present findings are compared with similar evidence from codistributed species of annelids, molluscs and crustaceans to identify potential dispersal filters in these eastern Pacific ridge systems.  相似文献
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There are two major groups of domestic water buffaloes in East and Southeast Asia: swamp buffaloes and river buffaloes. Genetic diversity among swamp and river buffaloes was studied by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b. The results showed that each of the two groups has mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with a specific cytochrome b haplotype. The pairwise nucleotide sequence divergence was calculated to be 2·67% between swamp and river buffaloes, suggesting that they might have diverged from the ancestral populations of Asiatic domestic water buffaloes, approximately 1 million years ago. In addition, the sequences of the same gene from three subspecies of anoa (lowland, mountain and quarles anoa) were determined and compared with that of a domestic water buffalo. The sequence divergence was 1·2% for mountain anoa vs quarles anoa, 3·6% for mountain anoa vs lowland anoa and 3·3% for quarles anoa vs lowland anoa. Moreover, the sequence divergence between water buffaloes and anoas was found to be approximately 3·33%. Our results provide molecular evidence to support the taxonomic classification, namely, that Asiatic buffaloes may be classified into four lineages, swamp buffalo, river buffalo, lowland anoa and mountain plus quarles anoa. However, the sequence divergence values among these four groups were lower than the sequence divergence values found in the genus and subgenus levels within the subfamily Bovinae. In particular, in contrast to some proposed taxonomic classifications, our results indicated that mtDNA in the water buffaloes and anoas did not diverge at the genus level.  相似文献
9.
We investigated the relationships of Asian bufonids using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA genes. Twenty-six samples representing 14 species of Bufo from China and Vietnam and 2 species of Torrentophryne from China were examined. Three samples of Bufo viridis from Armenia and Georgia were also sequenced to make a comparison to its sibling tetraploid species B. danatensis. Bufo americanus, from Canada, was used as the outgroup. Sequences from the 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome b, and the control region were analyzed using parsimony. East Asian bufonids were grouped into two major clades. One clade included B. andrewsi, B. bankorensis, B. gargarizans, B. tibetanus, B. tuberculatus, its sister clade B. cryptotympanicus, and the 2 species of Torrentophryne. The second clade consisted of B. galeatus, B. himalayanus, B. melanostictus, and a new species from Vietnam. The placement of three taxa (B. raddei, B. viridis, and its sister species, B. danatensis) was problematic. The genus Torrentophryne should be synonymized with Bufo to remove paraphyly. Because B. raddei does not belong to the clade that includes B. viridis and B. danatensis, it was removed from the viridis species group. The species status of B. bankorensis from Taiwan is evaluated.  相似文献
10.
基因序列在蚜虫分子系统发育研究中的应用   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
张合彩  乔格侠 《昆虫学报》2006,49(3):521-527
  总结了核基因和线粒体基因在半翅目蚜虫分子系统发育研究中的应用。核基因中EF-1α应用最广泛,适用于探讨属级及属以上的问题; 核rDNA在蚜虫中应用较少,18S rDNA适用于探讨科级以上高级阶元的问题;LWO是新近在蚜虫中开发使用的一个新基因。线粒体基因中,COⅠ/COⅡ使用最多,12S rDNA/16S rDNA、ND1、Cyt b以及F-ATP6均有应用,探讨的问题从属、种级到科级不等。核基因和线粒体基因间以及不同线粒体基因间的联合分析在解决不同层次的问题中均有应用。建议不断尝试新基因以找出适合蚜虫类群的“标准基因”。并对未来蚜虫分子系统发育研究趋势进行了展望。  相似文献
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