The effect of N supply on the quality of Calliandra calothyrsus and Gliricidia sepium prunings was studied in a glasshouse over a 7-month growing period. Increasing the concentration of N supplied from 0.625 to 10.0 mM NO3-N resulted in increased N concentration but decreased polyphenol concentration, protein-binding capacity and C:N ratio of prunings from both species. Lignin concentration was not consistently altered by the N treatment. Mineralization of N from the prunings was measured over a 14-week period under controlled leaching and non-leaching conditions. The results indicated a strong interaction between legume species and concentration of N supply in their influence on N mineralization of the prunings applied to the soil. Differences in the %N mineralized were dictated by the quality of the prunings. The (lignin + polyphenol):N ratio was the pruning quality factor which could be used most consistently and accurately to predict N mineralization of the legume prunings incubated under leaching conditions, and the relationship was best described by a linear regression. Under non-leaching conditions, however, the protein-binding capacity appeared to be the most important parameter in determining the patterns of N release from the prunings studied. The relationship between the N mineralization rate constant and the protein-binding capacity was best described by a negative exponential function, y=0.078 exp(–0.0083x). The present study also indicated that the release of N from legume prunings containing a relatively high amount of polyphenol could be enhanced by governing the N availability conditions under which the plant is grown, for example whether or not it is actively fixing nitrogen. Estimates of pruning N mineralization after 14 weeks with the difference method averaged 6% (leaching conditions) and 22% (nonleaching conditions) more than with the 15N method for all legume prunings studied. The recovery of pruning by maize (4–38%) was well correlated with the % pruning N mineralized suggesting that incubation data closely reflect the pruning N value for a given catch crop under non-leaching conditions. 相似文献
A simple model was developed to estimate the contribution of nitrogen (N) mineralization to the N supply of crops. In this model the soil organic matter is divided into active and passive pools. Annual soil mineralization of N is derived from the active pool. The active pool comprises stabilized and labile soil organic N. The stabilized N is built up from accumulated inputs of fresh organic N during a crop rotation but the labile N is a fraction of total N added, which mineralizes faster than the stabilized N. The passive pool is considered to have no participation in the mineralization process. Mineralization rates of labile and stabilized soil organic N from different crop residues decomposing in soil were derived from the literature and were described by the first-order rate equation dN/dt =-K*N, where N is the mineralizable organic N from crop residues andK is a constant. The data were groupedK1 by short-term (0–1 year) andK2 by long-term (0–10 years) incubation. Because the range of variation inK2 was smaller than inK1 we felt justified in using an average value to derive N mineralization from the stabilized pool. The use of a constant rate ofK1 was avoided so net N mineralization during the first year after addition is derived directly from the labile N in the crop residues. The model was applied to four Chilean agro-ecosystems, using daily averages of soil temperature and moisture. The N losses by leaching were also calculated. The N mineralization varied between 30 and 130 kg N ha–1 yr–1 depending on organic N inputs. Nitrogen losses by leaching in a poorly structured soil were estimated to be about 10% of total N mineralized. The model could explain the large differences in N- mineralization as measured by the potential N mineralization at the four sites studied. However, when grassland was present in the crop rotation, the model underestimated the results obtained from potential mineralization. 相似文献
An annual nitrogen budget was established for a temperate back barrier salt-marsh system along a productivity gradient at low and high marsh elevation. We measured plant biomass and nitrogen content in three plant compartments to deduce plant N-allocation patterns. Measurements were done along a successional sequence in a salt-marsh system. In addition, N-mineralization, wet and dry atmospheric N-deposition and sediment N-deposition were measured.
Plant-species dominance changed along the successional sequence. In early stages, Elymus farctus and Spergularia media formed a large part of total plant biomass. Festuca rubra and Puccinellia maritima were dominant at intermediate stages, whereas Elymus pycnanthus and Limonium vulgare were dominant at late stages of succession. Shoot biomass was highest in June, whereas litter biomass was highest in September and December. Root biomass formed by far the largest fraction of total plant biomass, especially at a low-marsh elevation.
Wet deposition of nitrate and ammonium was 1.7 g N m−2 yr−1, whereas throughfall deposition (dry and wet deposition) amounted to 2.1–3.6 g N m−2 yr−1, and was positively related to the height of an artificial plant canopy. Sediment organic nitrogen deposition rate was 0.3–5.4 g N m−2 yr−1, and negatively related to marsh elevation. Nitrogen mineralization rate increased from 2.5–2.8 g N m−2 yr−1 in young marshes towards 8.0–12.7 g N m−2 yr−1 at older marshes, depending on marsh elevation.
At a low-marsh elevation, plant N-availability depended equally on tidal N, atmospheric N and mineralized N, especially in young marshes, whereas the decomposition pathway became more important in older marshes. Tidal N contributed most to ecoystem N-accumulation rate at early successional stages, whereas atmospheric N was more important at later stages. Tidal influence was low at high-marsh elevation sites. Here, atmospheric deposition was the dominant exogenous nitrogen source both in young and old marshes. 相似文献