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1.
From examination of the ratios of strontium to calcium laid down as a lifetime record in the otoliths of sea trout Salmo trutta from Gotland, Baltic Sea, it was found that: (1) the shortest stream was used mostly by precociously emigrant or coastally hatched spawners; (2) longer streams had more fish that underwent normal smoltification; (3) sea-caught fish were predominantly coastally hatched (presumably near stream mouths). Furthermore, some otoliths showed no evidence of a freshwater history at all, raising the possibility of a contingent of the coastal population that does not depend on riverine spawning. The results emphasize the importance of the coastal zone as natal and early life habitat for sea trout in the Baltic, particularly with respect to a potential change to a warmer climate which may exacerbate conditions within small, ephemeral trout streams.  相似文献
2.
Anadromous and resident forms of pond smelt, Hypomesus nipponensis, were found to occur in sympatry in Lake Ogawara, Japan. Profiles of Sr: Ca ratios from individuals could be grouped to two patterns (1) a resident pattern with low Sr: Ca ratios from core to edge and (2) an anadromous pattern with relatively low Sr: Ca ratios near the core with abrupt increases in ratios at a location approximately 0.3mm from the core. Spawners smaller than 60mm standard length (SL) were resident, between 60 to 80mm were mixed resident and anadromous, and larger than 80mm were anadromous. Anadromous individuals first migrated after 40 to 82 days from hatching (mean±sd, 59.1±13.5d) and 14.6 to 30.9mm SL (22.2±5.3mm). There was no difference in SL between resident and anadromous individuals during age at first migration, suggesting that size may not be the mechanism for divergence of alternative life history styles.  相似文献
3.
Otoliths of male (1+ year old) Terubok, tropical shad Tenualosa toli from the Lupar River, Sarawak, were treated in different ways to assess the effect of post-capture storage on element concentrations in the otolith core and edge detected by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Five treatments were compared: rapid removal and dry storage; fish kept 5 h after capture then otoliths removed; rapid removal and stored in alcohol; fish rozen for 24 h then otoliths removed; and storage of intact head in alcohol for several weeks. Seven elements were detected at the core and edge of otoliths (Li, Na, Mg, Mn, Co, Sr, Ba). Of these, Na, Mg, Co and Ba differed among treatments, being highest in treatments where the otolith remained in the head. Variation in element measurements due to treatment effects was similar to within-otolith variation for the other elements and was least variable in the fresh treatment. The variation in concentration between the core and edge was more significant than other sources of variation (up to 100 times) for some elements. These differences were probably due to physiological factors (ontogenetic) or to yearly changes in water chemistry. The results indicate that the method of otolith storage, especially freezing whole fish, can have a small, but measurable, effect on the concentrations of Na, Mg, Co and Ba.  相似文献
4.
Otolith Sr:Ca ratios were examined to evaluate the contribution of the stocked eel Anguilla anguilla elvers, which have been stocked in Lithuanian waters and mixed with naturally recruited eels for several decades, to the native eel population. Stocked eels were identified by the freshwater signature (Sr:Ca ratios <2·24 × 10−3) on the otolith after the glass eel stage. Naturally recruited eels, that had migrated through the North and Baltic Seas, were characterized by an extended seawater and brackish-water signature (Sr:Ca ratios >3·23 × 10−3) after the glass eel stage. Of 108 eels analysed, 21 eels had otolith Sr:Ca ratio profiles consistent with stocking while 87 showed patterns of natural recruitment. The ages of naturally recruited eels arriving in Lithuanian fresh waters varied from 1 to 10 years, with a mean ±  s.d . age of 5·2 ± 2·1 years. Eels from the inland Lake Baluošai were all freshwater residents of stocked origin. Stocked eels, however, accounted for only 20% of the eels from the Curonian Lagoon and 2% of eels sampled in Baltic coastal waters. This finding does not support the hypothesis that the eel fishery in the Curonian Lagoon depends mostly on stocking.  相似文献
5.
Sr : Ca ratios measured in the otoliths of sea‐caged Atlantic salmon Salmo salar showed distinct seasonal peaks that were unrelated to water temperature and somatic growth, suggesting other factors have a greater influence on strontium deposition. Atlantic salmon remained in the sea‐cages for two seasons, or equivalent to two‐seawinter fish in the wild and were subjected to seasonally varying temperatures. Water temperature appeared to be inversely related to the Sr : Ca ratios, but this relationship was statistically not significant. Furthermore, water temperature could not explain the distinct increase in the strontium during the second year. The intensity of the Sr peaks increased in the second season while average winter water temperatures were consistent between years. Additionally, strontium deposition in the otoliths was unrelated to somatic growth. Somatic growth, as evidenced by circuli spacings on the scales, was largely invariant and therefore could not explain the observed peaks. Though not explicitly measured, the data are consistent with the notion that strontium deposition is a function of maturity state in Atlantic salmon.  相似文献
6.
The timing of catches of anguillid glass eels and their otolith microstructure and microchemistry were studied in southwest Iceland, where the European eel, Anguilla anguilla and American eel, A. rostrata have been thought to live sympatrically, to learn about their early life history and the possible mechanism of the separation between these two species ranges. Catches at the site studied suggest that glass eels may have started upstream migration as the river temperature warmed in late June and early July. The glass eels were mitochondrially identified into two species, A. anguilla and A. rostrata, although the latter were likely hybrids between the two species based on a different study. Otolith analyses showed no sharp increases in otolith increment width or sharp decrease of otolith Sr:Ca ratio in either species, which are the characteristic changes corresponding to the onset of metamorphosis in many anguillid species including A. rostrata collected in North America and A. anguilla in Europe. The mean age at recruitment determined for the glass eels in Iceland were similar between the two species (336.6 ± 41.7 and 319.3 ± 36.0 days for A. anguilla and A. rostrata, respectively), as were their total lengths (range 58.0–78.5 mm and 58.5–73.0 mm). In addition, mean age at metamorphosis (278.0 ± 36.8 and 254.0 ± 47.7 days) and total age (372.3 ± 50.8 and 352.9 ± 42.6 days) were also similar between the two species. However, these ages of A. rostrata in Iceland were older than those in North America, and those of A. anguilla collected in Iceland were roughly intermediate between the rest of Europe and North Africa. These findings support the hypothesis that the timing of metamorphosis is a key factor for determining the place of recruitment of glass eels and maintaining the geographic separation between the two species.  相似文献
7.
Otolith chemical composition differed between juveniles of five fish species ( Solea solea , Solea senegalensis , Platichthys flesus , Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax ) in nursery areas of six estuaries along the Portuguese coast (Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado and Mira). Spatially consistent patterns in the concentration of some elements were responsible for differences between species. Discrimination of estuaries using data from all species simultaneously averaged 44·7% of correctly classified cases, whilst discrimination of species averaged 76·2%. Moreover, species-related patterns in otolith fingerprints were highlighted when comparing species for each estuarine nursery area, with intra estuarine species discrimination averages ranging from 86·2 to 100·0%. Similarities in the otolith elemental fingerprints were larger between species with close phylogeny and ecology, particularly between flatfish and perciform species. In addition to the differences in physiological regulation of species, specific microhabitat use in a common environment was suggested as a relevant factor for the differentiation of otolith chemistry among species occurring in the same locations. Despite positive results in specific estuaries, variation in otolith composition limited the use of species as proxies to classify others to their system of origin.  相似文献
8.
The relationship between the strontium content of the outer layers of otoliths (an indication of recent marine, estuarine or riverine habitat use) and the strontium content of roe in ripe female brown trout Salmo trutta was examined in fish collected from the Pomahaka River and the lower reaches of the Clutha River, South Island, New Zealand. A close relationship was found between the strontium content of roe and the outer layers of otoliths. This finding suggests that spawned eggs collected from redds could potentially be used to track the extent of upstream spawning migrations by anadromous brown trout.  相似文献
9.
Scale patterns, maturational status and otolith microchemistry (strontium to calcium ratios) were analysed in sympatric anadromous and non-anadromous rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Santa Cruz River (Patagonia, Argentina) to investigate the life-history differences of anadromous and non-anadromous lifestyles and the association between maternal origin and progeny life history. The analyses revealed that both forms can give rise to one another, indicating a single population with alternative phenotypes. Anadromous fish smolted at ages 2 and 3 years, matured after 1 to 2 years in the ocean, and survived up to 11 years, spawning up to eight times. Non-anadromous fish survived up to 6 years, spawning up to three times. The extended reproductive life span associated with anadromy in this river suggests that increased energetic and physiological demands associated with ocean migration may not necessarily result in reduced postspawning survival, as has been suggested for salmonids in general. Alternatively, reduction in parity may be regarded as the evolutionary outcome of reproductive traits resulting from the adoption of anadromy ( i.e. augmented reproductive investment) coupled with long-range migrations to and from the ocean. The life-history patterns of Santa Cruz River rainbow trout provide a natural experiment for investigating the evolutionary transition and maintenance of anadromy and non-anadromy within salmonid populations.  相似文献
10.
Otolith chemical analyses (proton-induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) were used to examine patterns of diadromy in Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena collected from three rivers in south-eastern Australia. Concentrations of Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca were measured in the sagittal otoliths of 25 fish and in water samples collected on two occasions from multiple sites within freshwater, estuarine and marine reaches of the rivers. The results provide evidence of marine residency during the juvenile phase, with high Sr:Ca and low Ba:Ca in the inner region of the otoliths that were consistent across all three rivers. This general pattern was apparent for all individuals examined, suggesting that diadromous migration may be an obligate aspect of the life history. The chemical signatures of the outer regions of the otoliths were distinct between the three rivers, whilst there was no difference in the inner regions of the otoliths. This suggests that juveniles from different rivers may reside in a relatively homogenous chemical environment, such as the sea, and populations in coastal Victorian rivers may share a common marine recruitment source.  相似文献
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