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稳定性同位素标记技术同分子生物学技术相结合而发展起来的稳定性同位素探测技术(stableisotope probing,SIP),在对各种环境中微生物群落组成进行遗传分类学鉴定的同时,可确定其在环境过程中的功能,提供复杂群落中微生物相互作用及其代谢功能的大量信息,具有广阔的应用前景.其基本原理是:将原位或微宇宙(microcosm)的环境样品暴露于稳定性同位素富集的基质中,这些样品中存在的某些微生物能够以基质中的稳定(性同位素为碳源或氮源进行物质代谢并满足其自身生长需要,基质中的稳定性同位素被吸收同化进入微生物体内,参与各类物质如核酸(DNA和RNA)及磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)等的生物合成,通过提取、分离、纯化、分析这些微生物体内稳定性同位素标记的生物标志物,从而将微生物的组成与其功能联系起来.在介绍稳定性同位素培养基质的选择及标记方法、合适的生物标志物的选择及提取分离方法的基础上,举例阐述了此项技术在甲基营养菌、有机污染物降解菌、根际微生物生态、互营微生物、宏基因组学等方面的应用.  相似文献
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To understand better the in situ microbial functional diversity under oil contamination stress, soils were sampled along a contamination gradient at an oil field in north-east China. Microbial community functional structure was examined with a functional gene array, termed GeoChip. Multivariate statistical analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to study the functional gene responses to oil concentrations. The total functional gene abundance and diversity decreased along the gradient of increasing contamination. The overall abundance of soil bacteria, archaea and fungi decreased to 10%, 40% and 80% of those in the pristine soil. Several functional genes in the families pgl, rbcL, nifH and nor and those encoding cellulase, laccase, chitinase, urease and key enzymes in metabolizing organic compounds were significantly decreased with oil contamination, especially under high contamination stress. However, a few genes encoding key enzymes for catechol, protocatechuate, and biphenyl degradation and in the gene families of nir, rbcL and pgl showed a significant increase at a medium level of oil contamination. Oil content and soil available nitrogen were found to be important factors influencing the microbial community structure. The results provide an insight into microbial functional diversity in oil-contaminated soils, providing potential information for on-site management and remediation measures.  相似文献
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安韶山  李国辉  陈利顶 《生态学报》2011,31(18):5225-5234
选择宁南山区9种典型植物的根际与非根际土壤为研究对象,采用Biolog方法对土壤微生物功能多样性进行了研究。结果表明:9种不同植物根际土壤与非根际土壤的微生物活性(AWCD)、微生物多样性指数和微生物均匀度指数均存在明显差异;除冰草外,其他各种植物的根际土壤的微生物活性AWCD、微生物多样性指数和微生物均匀度指数均比非根际土壤的高;9种典型植物根际土壤微生物主要碳源利用类型是羧酸类和氨基酸类,非根际土壤微生物主要碳源利用类型是羧酸类、胺类、氨基酸类;微生物活性、微生物多样性指数和微生物均匀度指数两两之间均达到了极显著相关,与土壤化学性质各指标之间均未达到显著相关水平。  相似文献
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The detection and analysis of nucleic acids extracted from microbial communities are the ultimate ways to determine the diversity and functional capability of microbial communities in the environments. However, it remains a challenge to use molecular techniques for unequivocal determination and quantification of microbial species composition and functional activities. Considerable efforts have been made to enhance the capability of molecular techniques. Here an update of the recent developments in molecular techniques for environmental microbiology is provided.  相似文献
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Some agricultural soils in South Eastern Australia with duplex profiles have subsoils with high bulk density, which may limit root penetration, water uptake and crop yield. In these soils, a large proportion (up to 80%) of plant roots maybe preferentially located within the macropores or in the soil within 1–10 mm of the macropores, a zone defined as the macropore sheath (MPS). The chemical and microbiological properties of MPS soil manually dissected from a 1–3 mm wide region surrounding the macropores was compared with that of adjacent bulk soil (>10 mm from macropores) at 4 soil depths (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, 40–60 cm and 60–80 cm). Compared to the bulk soil, the MPS soil had higher organic C, total N, bicarbonate-extractable P, Ca+, Cu, Fe and Mn and supported higher populations of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., cellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic fungi, nitrifying bacteria and the root pathogen Pythium.In addition, analysis of carbon substrate utilization patterns showed the microbial community associated with the MPS soil to have higher metabolic activity and greater functional diversity than the microbial community associated with the bulk soil at all soil depths. Phospholipid fatty acids associated with bacteria and fungi were also shown to be present in higher relative amounts in the MPS soil compared to the bulk soil. Whilst populations of microbial functional groups in the MPS and the bulk soil declined with increasing soil depth, the differentiation between the two soils in microbiological properties occurred at all soil depths. Soil aggregates (< 0.5 mm diameter) associated with plant roots located within macropores were found to support a microbial community that was quantitatively and functionally different to that in the MPS soil and the bulk soil at all soil depths. The microbial community associated with these soil aggregates thus represented a third recognizable environment for plant roots and microorganisms in the subsoil.  相似文献
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谈地球生物学的重要意义   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
地球生物学是地球科学与生命科学交叉形成的一级学科,它研究作为地球系统三大基本过程之一的生命过程,即生物圈与地球其他圈层的相互作用.不仅是地球影响生物圈.而且生物圈也影响地球系统.这种相互作用或影响,从地球历史早期到现在,是一直在协同、耦合地进行着.生命与地球环境的协同演化是地球生物学的核心.当前地球生物学发展的重点是地球微生物学.宏体生物能反映地球环境对它们的影响及它们对环境的适应,但除植物外,它们对环境的影响有限.了解生物圈与地圈双向的相互作用必须研究地球微生物学.生命科学和整个自然科学都在向微观方向发展,不断形成新的理论和技术方法.古生物学不能停留在以古动、植物学为主的阶段,而要与生命科学和整个自然科学保持同步发展.现在我们已经找到了解决微生物与地质研究相结合问题的途径.微生物功能群具有重要的地质学意义,是研究地球微生物学的突破口.地球生物学是古生物学的继承和超越.分类系统学将仍然是研究的基础,但是包含了传统古生物学的地球生物学在学科内容和技术方法上将更多地与物理、化学、生物等学科交叉融合.其结果将使古生物学在时间上更前溯,在空间上更开拓,为古生物学在地球系统科学研究和为国民经济主战场服务中开辟更广阔的前景.  相似文献
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转座子是DNA插入因子的一种,是指能在基因组间或组内跳跃的DNA片段。转座子作为插入突变剂或分子标签已被广泛地应用于基因的分离和克隆,且因其独特的性质已成为发现新基因和基因功能分析的有效工具。这使得转座子无论是在单基因水平还是全基因组水平,都成为细菌、酵母和其他微生物研究的有力工具。简单而有效的体外转座反应可以对一些以往难以进行分析的顽固微生物进行转座诱变分析。而建立在转座子基础上的信号标签诱变技术和遗传足迹法的应用则发现了一些新的病原微生物毒力因子,从而可以更好地对这些病原微生物的致病机理进行阐述。这些再次说明转座子是微生物功能基因组研究中的有力工具。本文综述了转座子及其衍生载体介导的一些技术,并讨论其在微生物功能基因组研究中的应用。  相似文献
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The main objectives of this study were (1) to describe the diversity of mycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Uapaca bojeri, an endemic Euphorbiaceae of Madagascar, and (2) to determine the potential benefits of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi [ectomycorrhizal and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi] on the growth of this tree species and on the functional diversity of soil microflora. Ninety-four sporophores were collected from three survey sites. They were identified as belonging to the ectomycorrhizal genera Afroboletus, Amanita, Boletus, Cantharellus, Lactarius, Leccinum, Rubinoboletus, Scleroderma, Tricholoma, and Xerocomus. Russula was the most frequent ectomycorrhizal genus recorded under U. bojeri. AM structures (vesicles and hyphae) were detected from the roots in all surveyed sites. In addition, this study showed that this tree species is highly dependent on both types of mycorrhiza, and controlled ectomycorrhization of this Uapaca species strongly influences soil microbial catabolic diversity. These results showed that the complex symbiotic status of U. bojeri could be managed to optimize its development in degraded areas. The use of selected mycorrhizal fungi such the Scleroderma Sc1 isolate in nursery conditions could be of great interest as (1) this fungal strain is very competitive against native symbiotic microflora, and (2) the fungal inoculation improves the catabolic potentialities of the soil microflora.  相似文献
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