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微生物分子生态学研究方法的新进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
环境中微生物的群落结构及多样性和微生物的功能及代谢机理是微生物生态学的研究热点,长期以来,由于受到研究技术的限制,对微生物的群落结构和多样性的认识还不全面,微生物的功能及代谢机理方面了解也很少.随着高通量测序、基因芯片等新技术的不断更新,微生物分子生态学的研究方法和研究途径也在不断变化.高通量测序技术改变了微生物多样性、宏基因组学和宏转录组学的研究方法,GeoChip高密度覆盖海量已知功能的基因探针于单张芯片,能快速确定微生物和已知功能基因的存在与否.总结和比较了目前最新的研究手段,并归纳了这些方法的适用性和优缺点.  相似文献
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Sustainable development requires the promotion of environmental management and a constant search for new technologies to treat a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats contaminated by increasing anthropogenic activities. Bioremediation, i.e. the elimination of natural or xenobiotic pollutants by living organisms, is an environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternative to physico-chemical cleanup options. However, the strategy and outcome of bioremediation in open systems or confined environments depend on a variety of physico-chemical and biological factors that need to be assessed and monitored. In particular, microorganisms are key players in bioremediation applications, yet their catabolic potential and their dynamics in situ remain poorly characterized. To perform a comprehensive assessment of the biodegradative potential of a contaminated site and efficiently monitor changes in the structure and activities of microbial communities involved in bioremediation processes, sensitive, fast and large-scale methods are needed. Over the last few years, the scientific literature has revealed the progressive emergence of genomic high-throughput technologies in environmental microbiology and biotechnology. In this review, we discuss various high--throughput techniques and their possible--or already demonstrated-application to assess biotreatment of contaminated environments.  相似文献
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进入后基因组学时代,测序技术飞速发展,测序成本明显下降,形成了涵盖宏基因组学、宏转录组学和宏蛋白质组学的宏组学技术,推动了对微生物群落的多样性、结构及潜在基因功能方面的深入研究。最近随着整合的宏组学技术的提出及应用,全面系统分析微生物群落动态变化及其代谢功能已成为可能,这将成为微生物生态学研究的新趋势。本文综述了宏组学在研究海洋湖泊、深海热泉、人体肠道、牛瘤胃生境、森林土壤与堆肥生境等环境中微生物群落的结构和功能方面的最新进展与成功应用案例。  相似文献
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