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1.
Although A-type cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA) is required for plant cell division, our understanding of how CDKA is activated before the onset of commitment to cell division is limited. Here we show that phosphorylation of threonine 161 (T161) in plant CDKA is required for activation of its associated kinase. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of CDKA T161 increased greatly, in parallel with activation of p13(suc1)-associated kinase activity, when stationary-phase tobacco BY-2 cells were subcultured into fresh medium. Although induced over-expression of a dominant-negative CDKA mutant (D146N) fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in BY-2 cells resulted in elongated cells after cell division was arrested, over-expression of this CDKA mutant with a non-phosphorylatable alanine in place of T161 (T161A) had no effect on cellular growth. However, immunoprecipitates of both GFP-fused CDKAs exhibited virtually no histone H1 kinase activity, suggesting that both mutants formed kinase-inactive complexes. In a baculovirus expression system, the recombinant CDKA(T161A)/cyclin D complex possessed no detectable kinase activity, indicating that phosphorylation of T161 is required for CDKA activation. To further elucidate the role of T161 phosphorylation, we used a loss-of-function mutation in the CDKA;1 gene, which encodes the only Arabidopsis CDKA. This mutant displays male gametophyte lethality, and produces bicellular pollen grains instead of the tricellular grains produced in wild-type plants. Introduction of CDKA;1(T161E)-GFP, which mimics phosphorylated T161, resulted in successful complementation of the cdka-1 mutation, whereas no recovery was observed when CDKA;1(T161A)-GFP was introduced. Thus, phosphorylation of T161 in Arabidopsis CDKA;1 is essential for cell division during male gametogenesis.  相似文献
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Abstract. The ultrastructure of the male gonad of Eulimnadia texana (Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata) has been observed for the first time to investigate the sexuality of a well-studied case of androdioecy in the animal kingdom. The male gonad is a double structure located in the hemocoel throughout the entire body length on each side of the midgut. Male gametes originate from the wall and mature centripetally toward the lumen; the proliferative activity is very high and continuous and therefore the mature gonad is full of numerous germ cells. Inside the lumen several degenerative stages are found mixed with sperm cells and spermatids, the latter two being not easily distinguishable because of the slight differences between them. The evolutionary meaning of the degenerative process in E. texana male gametes is difficult to explain, and we propose some hypotheses about its possible role or cause in the studied population: (a) to help build spermatophores, (b) to act as a trophic component for viable sperm, (c) as a manifestation of inbreeding depression, and/or (d) to regulate the number of sperm cells.  相似文献
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Summary Changes in the number and distribution of mitochondria in microspores and pollen grains during male gametogenesis inPharbitis nil were examined with Technovit sections stained with 3,3-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. The number of mitochondria per microspore or pollen grain ofP. nil increased constantly and dramatically during male gametogenesis. During this process, mitochondria exhibited characteristic localizations: subpopulations of mitochondria covered the surface of the microspore and vegetative nuclei before and again just after postmeiotic mitosis I (9 and 5 days before flowering, respectively). The mitochondria also surrounded the generative nucleus 2 days after postmeiotic mitosis I (5 days before flowering), although the density of mitochondria on the nuclear surface was lower. Electron microscopy showed that the mitochondria were about 30 nm from the nuclear envelope and that each mitochondrion was located near a nuclear pore. The characteristic localization of mitochondria inP. nil pollen may serve as a model to analyze the mechanisms that control mitochondrial positioning within a cell and interactions between mitochondria and nuclei.Abbreviations DAPI 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole - DiOC6 3,3-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide - PM I postmeiotic mitosis I  相似文献
4.
八角枫药壁的发育为基本型。分泌型绒毡层。药室内壁未见纤维状加厚,药壁开裂时,与中层、绒毡层一样退化消失,仅剩宽锯齿状的表皮。小孢子母细胞以同时型的胞质分裂形成四分体。大多数四分体呈四面体型,少数也有左右对称和十字交叉型。成熟花粉粒二细胞,赤道面观为椭圆状,极面观近三裂圆形。三孔沟,外壁具密集的细网状纹饰,细胞内贮藏有丰富的淀粉植。  相似文献
5.
Paola Bassi 《Protoplasma》1993,174(3-4):128-133
Summary The male gametophyte of the Spermatophyta is of particular interest when studying quantitative modifications of repetitive DNA which accompany plant differentiation. In fact, this well documented system offers the opportunity to investigate the phenomenon at the nuclear level. In particular, it permits comparison between single haploid nuclei which, though derived from the same mitotic division, have different, well-defined morphological and functional processes. The aim of the present work was to investigate the behaviour of repetitive DNA during male gametogenesis inNarcissus papyraceus. By the use of A+T and G+C specific fluorochromes (DAPI and Chromomycin A3), and by in situ DNA digestion with appropriate restriction endonucleases (Eco RI and Hae III), it is shown that during the course of gametogenesis, generative and vegetative nuclei behave differently with respect to particular sections of the genome. Characteristic agglomerations of specific A+T rich DNA sequences can be observed, localized by the two distal ends of the spindle-shaped generative nucleus. The surface area occupied by the agglomerations differs significantly at the ends in all observed cases. The above agglomerations are present in most of the generative nuclei and are probably composed of repetitive DNA sequences. Some embryological questions are discussed in the light of these results.Abbreviations DAPI 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole - Eco RI Eco RI with star activity (N/AATTN) Dedicated to Prof. E. Battaglia on the occasion of his 75th birthday  相似文献
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7.
利用石蜡切片技术对百合科植物黄花油点草[Tricyrtis maculata(D.Don)Machride]大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育进行了研究。结果表明:(1)黄花油点草花药具有4个药室,花药壁的发育方式为单子叶型,由表皮、药室内壁、中层及绒毡层组成;绒毡层发育类型为分泌型,到四分体花药阶段绒毡层细胞开始解体退化,花药成熟时完全消失。(2)花粉母细胞减数分裂为连续型,依次形成二分体、四分体;四分体有四面体形和对称形两种类型;成熟花粉为2-细胞花粉。(3)子房3室,胚珠多数,每室2列,倒生型胚珠,双珠被,薄珠心,雌性孢原细胞不经过平周分裂而直接发育成大孢子母细胞;减数分裂后四分体大孢子呈线型或T型排列,合点端大孢子分化为功能大孢子,蓼型胚囊。(4)在花药发育过程的不同阶段均出现发育异常现象,导致花粉败育。  相似文献
8.
陈晓玲  赵 桦 《西北植物学报》2016,36(11):2207-2212
采用石蜡切片技术对百合科植物山麦冬大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育进行了观察研究。结果表明:(1)山麦冬花药具有4个花粉囊,花药壁的发育方式为基本型,花药壁完全分化时由表皮、药室内壁、中层及绒毡层组成。(2)绒毡层发育类型为分泌型,到四分体孢子彼此分离形成单细胞花粉阶段,绒毡层细胞开始解体退化,花粉成熟时绒毡层细胞完全消失;花粉母细胞减数分裂为连续型,四分体为左右对称形排列,成熟花粉为3 细胞花粉,单萌发沟。(3)子房3室,每室2枚胚珠,胚珠倒生型,双珠被,薄珠心,雌性孢原细胞不经过平周分裂而直接发育而成大孢子母细胞。(4)减数分裂后四分体大孢子呈线型或T型排列,合点端大孢子分化为功能大孢子,胚囊发育为蓼型;花粉母细胞减数分裂过程中,二分体、四分体细胞外方被胼胝质壁所包被,小孢子形成后胼胝质壁逐渐消失。该研究结果丰富了百合科植物生殖生物学研究的内容,也为探讨百合科植物的系统学研究提供了参考。  相似文献
9.
利用石蜡切片技术,对百合科植物开口箭 (Tupistra chinensis Baker) 大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育进程进行胚胎学观察分析,以明确开口箭胚胎发育的特征,为百合科植物的研究提供生殖生物学依据。结果表明:(1)开口箭花药具有4个药室,花药壁的发育方式为基本型,由表皮、药室内壁、中层及绒毡层组成;绒毡层发育类型为分泌型,到四分体花药阶段绒毡层细胞开始解体退化,花药成熟时完全消失。(2)花粉母细胞减数分裂为连续型,依次形成二分体、四分体,四分体为左右对称形;成熟花粉为2 细胞花粉,具单萌发沟。(3)子房3室,倒生型胚珠6枚,双珠被,薄珠心;在花部的分化早期,由珠心顶端表皮下方分化出雌性孢原细胞,孢原细胞经过一次平周分裂形成周缘细胞和造孢细胞,造孢细胞发育为大孢子母细胞;大孢子母细胞第一次减数分裂后形成二分体,珠孔端的二分体孢子退化,合点端的二分体孢子继续第二次分裂,形成两个子细胞依次发育为二核胚囊、四核胚囊和八核胚囊;开口箭的胚囊发育类型为葱型。  相似文献
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