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1.
不速之客:林业外来有害生物   总被引:14,自引:1,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
 结合与中美两国林业有关的重要外来入侵性病虫害实例,包括板栗疫病、荷兰榆树病、松材线虫、光肩星天牛、红脂大小蠹和舞毒蛾等,对外来有害生物的危害严重程度、发生途径和控制对策进行了讨论,提出了入侵种监测、评估、科学研究、国际合作和信息共享等方面的具体建议。  相似文献
2.
冬季大斑啄木鸟对光肩星天牛的选择性捕食   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
20世纪80年代以来,光肩星天牛(Anoplophora glabripennis)在我国三北地区危害猖獗,严重破坏了西北地区的生态环境,并造成了巨大的经济损失(高瑞桐、李国宏,2001).  相似文献
3.
Use of 50 × 500 mm non-woven fiber bands impregnated with cultures of entomopathogenic fungi was investigated for control of Anoplophora glabripennis. Fungal bands produced as a commercial pest control product and obtained from industry contained Beauveria brongniartii NBL 851 while lab-produced bands contained B. brongniartii WU 20 or Metarhizium anisopliae VD 1. In the laboratory, adult longevity decreased when adult A. glabripennis were forced to walk for 5 s on bands impregnated with B. brongniartii NBL 851 and for 25 s on B. brongniartii WU 20 and M. anisopliae VD 1 bands. A field experiment was conducted over a 31-day period in Huaiyuan, Anhui, China, by attaching bands impregnated with B. brongniartii NBL 851 or WU 20 around the trunks of willows (Salix sp.) at two sites infested with A. glabripennis. Treatments were compared directly, by monitoring adult longevity, and indirectly, by counting oviposition scars and exit holes per tree to quantify relative oviposition per female. Adults collected from trees treated with B. brongniartii WU 20 died more quickly than adults from the trees treated with B. brongniartii NBL 851 or controls. At the site with higher A. glabripennis population densities, relative oviposition per female was significantly lower for both fungal treatments compared with the control treatment. Between fungal treatments, B. brongniartii NBL 851 had a 5 day earlier negative effect on oviposition per female than B. brongniartii WU 20.  相似文献
4.
Tree colonization and feeding activity of the invasive wood‐borer Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), an Asian pest introduced into North America and Europe, was studied in a newly invaded area in Italy. The hypothesis being tested was that the reproductive success of the insect depend on habitat type and tree suitability. Adult beetles were caged on branches of host and nonhost species, in both urban and forest habitats. Two months later, number and size of feeding patches on plant tissues, eggs laid, and surviving larvae were assessed. Bark concentration of C and N was also measured from the same trees. Results indicated that the mean area of plant tissues consumed by adult feeding was significantly larger on trees growing in forest than in urban habitat, although within the same habitat there were no differences between susceptible and nonsusceptible trees. ALB tree colonization, in terms of number of eggs laid and young larvae survival, was not affected by habitat while it was higher on susceptible trees. Although trees growing in forests had a lower nitrogen concentration, they allowed colonization rates similar to those of trees growing in the urban habitat. Hence, the amount of carbon and nitrogen did not fully explain tree suitability or habitat selection. We suggest compensatory feeding as a potential mechanism that might explain this peculiar situation, as supported by a more intensive feeding activity recorded on trees in the forest. Suitability of different trees may be due to other factors, such as secondary chemical compounds.  相似文献
5.
  1. The Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis is highly polyphagous and widely spread over regions with different climates. Determining the key life‐history traits is important for understanding how local conditions affect its successful establishment and to develop adaptive management strategies.
  2. Field and laboratory studies were conducted from 2010 to 2012 on an A. glabripennis infestation in Northern Italy, aiming to determine its seasonal phenology, adult beetle longevity, density of successful emergence, infestation age and overwintering life history.
  3. Adult beetle emerged from infested trees from 22 May to 28 June. Ninety percent of emergence was reached around 20 July. The first 1% of emergence was accurately predicted by an accumulated degree‐day model.
  4. In the laboratory, the mean longevity of males and females developed under natural conditions was 27.8 ± 1.7 and 24.9 ± 1.8 days, respectively. In northern Italy, A. glabripennis largely overwinter as mature larvae in the xylem. The mean density of exit holes was 24.0 ± 2.7 holes/m2 of bark, with successful emergence from branches as small as 3.2 cm in diameter. Although the infestation was discovered in June 2009, the oldest exit hole found in infested trees dated from 2005.
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Four species of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae , Heterorhabditis bacteriophora , H. indica and H. marelatus , were tested for their ability to kill and reproduce in larvae of the Asian longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky). The larvae were permissive to all four species but mortality was higher and production of infective juveniles was greater for S. carpocapsae and H. marelatus . The lethal dosage of H. marelatus was determined to be 19 infective juveniles for second and third instar larvae and 347 infective juveniles for fourth and fifth instar larvae. H. marelatus infective juveniles, applied via sponges to oviposition sites on cut logs, located and killed host larvae within 30 cm galleries and reproduced successfully in several of the larvae.  相似文献
9.
Bioassays were conducted to document the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on adult female Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) reproduction before death and subsequent survival of offspring. The effect of infection on fecundity was evaluated for females already laying eggs and for newly eclosed females using M. anisopliae isolates ARSEF 7234 and 7711, respectively. Decreased longevity and oviposition compared with controls were observed in females that were already laying eggs when exposed to M. anisopliae ARSEF 7234. Newly eclosed females exposed to M. anisopliae ARSEF 7711 displayed shortened longevity (10.0 ± 0.7 days vs 74.3 ± 6.8 days for controls) and decreased oviposition (1.3 ± 0.7 eggs per ARSEF 7711-exposed female vs 97.2 ± 13.7 eggs per female for controls) compared with controls. Percentages of eggs that did not hatch were greater for both groups of fungal-treated females compared with controls and 60.0% of unhatched eggs contained signs of fungal infection. The percentage of larvae dying within 9 weeks of oviposition was higher for sexually mature females exposed to ARSEF 7234 compared with controls and >40% of dead larvae displayed signs of fungal infection. Thus, for both stages of females and both fungal isolates, fewer surviving larvae were produced after female fungal infection compared with controls. M. anisopliae infection affects female fitness by decreasing female longevity, by decreasing female oviposition before death and through horizontal transmission of M. anisopliae to offspring.  相似文献
10.
Abstract Volatiles from female Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis, were evaluated as candidate sex pheromone components. Previous studies on ALB have revealed several antennally active compounds from virgin females; however the origins and activity of these compounds were not apparent and require further investigation. We tested the hypothesis that one or more of the ALB contact sex pheromones is a precursor that undergoes abiotic oxidation to yield volatile pheromone components, and evaluated the activity of these compounds using laboratory and field bioassays. Gas chromatography coupled electroantennography detection (GC‐EAD) analysis indicated the presence of three antennally active aldehydes (heptanal, nonanal, and hexadecanal) in female cuticular extracts exposed to ozone or UV and visible light. In laboratory bioassays using a Y‐tube olfactometer, males were preferentially attracted to ozonized female body washes over crude body washes. Similarly, synthetic formulations of these compounds were preferred over controls in the olfactometer. Field trapping experiments conducted from 2006 to 2008 in Ningxia, China showed that synthetic lures of the three aldehydes formulated in a ratio simulating that of virgin females attracted more beetles compared to controls, and that combinations of these aldehydes, linalool oxide, and host kairomones captured more beetles than controls, and captured significantly more males.  相似文献
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