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Crossbreeding experiments with three geographically distinct strains (E, S, and L) of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis have been carried out in an attempt to elucidate the apparent male sterility of strain L, which is unable to produce resting eggs.The 9 crossing possibilities of the three strains have been investigated in 27 experiments. The results refute the concept of male sterility. L-males copulate successfully with mictic as well as with amictic females of strains E and S. Fertilized amictic E and S females produce defective resting eggs, which have only one thin shell and, which disintegrate after deposition. L-females cannot, as a rule, be fertilized. Moreover, crosses between strain E and S are succesful only in one direction; the reciprocal crosses failed.To explain the present results a hypothesis is suggested that the thickness of the body wall of newborn females differs in the three strains, and between mictic and amictic individuals. A sequence of gradually increasing body wall thickness of all types of females involved, together with a comparably increasing penetration ability of the males of strain E, S, and L explains the success or failure of all crosses, including the unilateral cross E × S.  相似文献
We reviewed 2524 articles published from 1987 to 1995 in five international journals, Conservation Biology , Biological Conservation , Biodiversity and Conservation , Ecological Applications , and the Journal of Applied Ecology , to assess patterns and imbalances in biodiversity research in the following subject areas: locations where research was conducted, types of organisms studied, types of ecosystems studied, types of methodologies used, and types of stresses investigated. Biodiversity research was found to be narrowly focused with little deviation from its initial course set of being a discipline concerned largely with the implications of forest habitat loss on charismatic terrestrial megafauna; i.e. the 'founder effect' is very much in evidence. The 'sleeping dragon' of ignored marine biodiversity is really symptomatic of a wider problem, and can perhaps be referred to as a 'hibernating hydra' of many imbalances due to, for example, under-representations of research from developing nations, or on amphibians and invertebrates, alpine and arctic systems, sociological components and chemical stresses etc. It is time to take steps to actively awaken the creature so that conservation biology/applied ecology can become more pluralistic in scope.  相似文献
Ray Gibson 《Hydrobiologia》1997,365(1-3):301-310
The past one hundred years of research on nemerteansis reviewed. Scientific methodology and philosophyhave advanced considerably during this period, yetnemerteans remain one of the least well known ofinvertebrate groups; nemerteans are not just membersof a minor phylum, they constitute a neglected yethighly successful assemblage of animals. Despite manyworkers in the last hundred years having madesignificant contributions to our knowledge about thisphylum of worms, many aspects of their biology arestill virtually, if not totally, unknown, and theenormous advances in many areas of scientificknowledge have not been paralleled by comparable gainsin our understanding of nemerteans.  相似文献
Since the discovery of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in 1976, extensive literature has proved its efficacy to control mosquitoes and black flies, of which many species are known as important vectors of diseases or simply as pests of humans and animals. Since 1978, Bti has been used in many countries on all continents and numerous studies have been made on target mosquitoes and black flies, as well as nontarget organisms (NTO). This review analyses the results of 75 studies on these organisms covering approximately 125 families, 300 genera and 400 species. Different factors such as species, instar, feeding behaviour and environmental parameters (larval density, water temperature, suspended matter etc.) may drastically affect the efficacy of the Bti products. This is addressed in detail by reviewing the main factors affecting mosquitoes as well as black flies. The results of a wide range of laboratory and field experiments using different target and nontarget species, various preparations and formulations of Bti and different biotic or abiotic factors are present in the literature, making the data difficult to compare on a common basis. Our analysis shows that, under different application conditions, the effects of Bti on target and nontarget organisms may be hard to predict. Although Bti has been proclaimed to be relatively highly specific, some studies show that some NTO are affected either by single or repeated Bti treatments. Present use against black flies seems ecologically acceptable. High frequencies of application and/or overdosages against mosquitoes may result in some persistence of the toxin crystals and ultimately this may have adverse effects on the food web. A long-term study (published in 1998) in mosquito habitats has shown that intensive Bti treatments over three years did in fact produce an impact on the food web in wetlands. This raises questions, for the first time, on Bti environmental specificity. The importance of this impact is discussed and the alternatives for practical pest control are considered. Some modifications of Bti use against mosquitoes, guided by research, is probably the best of these alternatives.  相似文献
李慧忠  陈兰花  王鸿  陈榕  吴琳琅 《生物磁学》2014,(23):4467-4470
目的:探讨实时三维超声心动图对心脏多发性粘液瘤诊断和术前风险评估及手术方式选择的临床意义。方法:回顾性分析我院2007年1月至2012年12月收治的经手术病理确诊为心脏多发性粘液瘤5例患者的二维超声心动图(two-dimensionale echocardiography,2DE)、实时三维超声心动图(real-time three-dimensional echocardiography,RT-3DE)声像图特征,并结合相关文献进行分析。结果:5例患者的超声心动图均在心腔内探及多个活动性团块,各团块均与一蒂相连接,RT-3DE较2DE能准确显示粘液瘤整体形态、位置及与周围组织清晰的界限,并定量测定其大小。结论:RT-3DE弥补了2DE不能显示粘液瘤立体形态图像的缺点,可更为准确、简便、快捷地对心脏多发性粘液瘤做出诊断,并为术前风险评估及手术方式的选择提供了更可靠的依据。  相似文献
目的:颅骨过度气4L(Craniocervicalbonepneumatisation)比较少见,近年来对其报道和认识逐渐增多。本文介绍一例偶然发现的颅骨过度气化的影像表现并对相关文献进行复习。方法:分析我院1例颅骨过度气化的影像学图像。并从国外pubmed数据库(www.pubmed.gov)及国内中国知网数据库(www.cnki.net)查找发表的文献进行文献复习。结果:颅骨过度气化表现为颅骨的气腔形成并局部膨出,多为偶然发现或因并发症就诊,可涉及颅盖骨、颅底骨及颈椎等,近年来对其认识逐渐增多。结论:颅骨过度气化尽管少见,对征象的认知有助于相关科室医师正确识别此征象,从而有利于临床一些相关疑难病例的诊断和操作并对防止漏、误诊具有一定的意义。  相似文献
胶质细胞源性神经营养因子(glial cell derived neurotrophic factor,GDNF)属转化生长因子β超家族成员,其成熟蛋白由134个氨基酸残基组成,而GDNF受体广泛分布于外周和中枢神经系统。GDNF不仅可以促进多巴胺能神经元、运动神经元的存活,对交感、副交感以及感觉神经元具有营养作用,还能够影响神经元的发育、分化并对非神经系统的发育也具有重要作用。近年来随着人们对疼痛认识的深入,疼痛的机制也不再限于神经元功能的改变,还受胶质细胞活化、多种营养因子、细胞因子及相应受体、离子通道等多方面因素的影响。为此,本文就近年来GDNF参与疼痛调节的相关研究进展做一简要综述。  相似文献
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