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根茎禾草乳熟期净光合速率日变化的比较研究   总被引:31,自引:0,他引:31       下载免费PDF全文
对6种具有不同根茎长度的禾草乳熟期净光合速率日变化进行了比较研究.结果表明,除了中间偃麦草(Elytrigia intermedia)为“单峰”曲线外,另外5种禾草的净光合速率日变化曲线均呈“双峰型”,且其总体趋势是根茎越发达、根冠比越大,其净光合速率越迟到达第1峰、“午降”经历时间也越短,而大气相对湿度偏低(<55%)和叶片温度偏高(>36℃)是导致“午降”的重要因素.羊草(Leymus chinense)、茹莎娜牧冰草(Pascopyrum smithii)、赖草(Leymus secalinus)、大赖草(Leymus racemosus)、蒙古冰草(Agropyron mongolicum)、中间偃麦草(Elytrigia intermedia)的净光合速率第1峰值分别出现在10:12、10:00、9:51、9:39、9:06、8:13;“午降”经历时间分别是471、474、464、467和551min;“午降”期间的叶片温度均值分别是37.8、37.5、36.9、37.0和36.3℃.羊草和蒙古冰草、赖草和大赖草分别具有相似的净光合速率日变化曲线。在P=0.01时,r值分别是0.88和0.96。  相似文献
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Do stomata respond to relative humidity?   总被引:23,自引:12,他引:11  
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Isoprene emission from leaves is temperature dependent and may protect leaves from damage at high temperatures. We measured the temperature of white oak ( Quercus alba L.) leaves at the top of the canopy. The largest short-term changes in leaf temperature were associated with changes in solar radiation. During these episodes, leaf temperature changed with a 1 min time constant, a measure of the rate of temperature change. We imposed rapid temperature fluctuations on leaves to study the effect of temperature change rate on isoprene emission. Leaf temperature changed with a 16 s time constant; isoprene responded more slowly with a 37 s time constant. This time constant was slow enough to cause a lag in isoprene emission when leaf temperature fluctuated rapidly but isoprene emission changed quickly enough to follow the large temperature changes observed in the oak canopy. This is consistent with the theory that isoprene functions to protect leaves from short periods of high temperature. Time constant analysis also revealed that there are two processes that cause isoprene emission to increase with leaf temperature. The fastest process likely reflects the influence of temperature on reaction kinetics, while the slower process may reflect the activation of an enzyme.  相似文献
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基于SHAW模型对农田小气候要素的模拟   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
肖薇  郑有飞  于强 《生态学报》2005,25(7):1626-1634
能量平衡是作物冠层水热传输的基础,气象因子(如空气温度、湿度、风速和土壤温度)是影响作物活动的外界条件,而叶温反映作物的整体健康状况。对冠层状况的理解和模拟有利于了解小气候特征并加强农田管理。采用SHAW(theSimultaneousHeatandWater)模型模拟:冠层表面能量平衡,表面辐射温度,冠层中叶温、气象要素和土壤温度廓线,模型的输入数据来源于华北平原禹城综合试验站。模型很好的模拟了表面能量平衡、冠层表面辐射温度、土壤温度、冠层2/3高度以下叶温和2/3高度以上气象要素。模型模拟净辐射(Rn)的效率达到0.97,潜热(LE)和感热通量(Hs)的模拟效率分别为0.81和0.78,模拟的表面辐射温度与实测值吻合较好,其模拟效率为0.91,冠层2/3高度以下的叶温模拟效率为0.76~0.86,但该高度以上的模拟结果不理想。除了2cm深度外,各层土壤温度模拟较好。  相似文献
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There is a strong natural light gradient from the top to the bottom in plant canopies and along gap-understorey continua. Leaf structure and photosynthetic capacities change close to proportionally along these gradients, leading to maximisation of whole canopy photosynthesis. However, other environmental factors also vary within the light gradients in a correlative manner. Specifically, the leaves exposed to higher irradiance suffer from more severe heat, water, and photoinhibition stresses. Research in tree canopies and across gap-understorey gradients demonstrates that plants have a large potential to acclimate to interacting environmental limitations. The optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport increases with increasing growth irradiance in the canopy, improving the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to heat stress. Stomatal constraints on photosynthesis are also larger at higher irradiance because the leaves at greater evaporative demands regulate water use more efficiently. Furthermore, upper canopy leaves are more rigid and have lower leaf osmotic potentials to improve water extraction from drying soil. The current review highlights that such an array of complex interactions significantly modifies the potential and realized whole canopy photosynthetic productivity, but also that the interactive effects cannot be simply predicted as composites of additive partial environmental stresses. We hypothesize that plant photosynthetic capacities deviate from the theoretical optimum values because of the interacting stresses in plant canopies and evolutionary trade-offs between leaf- and canopy-level plastic adjustments in light capture and use.  相似文献
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