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1.
Mammary epithelium can functionally regenerate upon transplantation. This renewal capacity has been classically ascribed to the function of a multipotent mammary gland stem cell population, which has been hypothesized to be a primary target in the etiology of breast cancer. Several complementary approaches were employed in this study to identify and enrich mammary epithelial cells that retain stem cell characteristics. Using long-term BrdU labeling, a population of label retaining cells (LRCs) that lack expression of differentiation markers has been identified. LRCs isolated from mammary primary cultures were enriched for stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) and Hoechst dye-effluxing "side population" properties. Sca-1(pos) cells in the mammary gland were localized to the luminal epithelia by using Sca-1(+/GFP) mice, were progesterone receptor-negative, and did not bind peanut lectin. Finally, the Sca-1(pos) population is enriched for functional stem/progenitor cells, as demonstrated by its increased regenerative potential compared with Sca-1(neg) cells when transplanted into the cleared mammary fat pads of host mice.  相似文献
2.
Abstract: Four biomarkers of neuronal protein oxidation [W/S ratio of MAL-6 spin-labeled synaptosomes, phenylhydrazine-reactive protein carbonyl content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, creatine kinase (CK) activity] in three brain regions [cerebellum, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and hippocampus (HIP)] of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-demented and age-matched control subjects were assessed. These endpoints indicate that AD brain protein may be more oxidized than that of control subjects. The W/S ratios of AD hippocampal and inferior parietal synaptosomes are 30 and 46% lower, respectively, than corresponding values of tissue isolated from control brain; however, the difference between the W/S ratios of AD and control cerebellar synaptosomes is not significant. Protein carbonyl content is increased 42 and 37% in the Alzheimer's HIP and IPL regions, respectively, relative to AD cerebellum, whereas carbonyl content in control HIP and IPL is similar to that of control cerebellum. GS activity decreases an average of 27% in the AD brain; CK activity declines by 80%. The brain regional variation of these oxidation-sensitive biomarkers corresponds to established histopathological features of AD (senile plaque and neurofibrillary tangle densities) and is paralleled by an increase in immunoreactive microglia. These data indicate that senile plaque-dense regions of the AD brain may represent environments of elevated oxidative stress.  相似文献
3.
Photoluminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are novel nanometer-size probes that have found bioimaging. Here we imaged a cell line of mouse lymphocytes. QDs were actively taken into the target cells by endocytotic pathways. The fluorescence of QDs held in the endosomes could be studied for more than a week and remained stable luminescence against cell activation induced by concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, phorbol myristate acetate, and calcium ionophore A23187. These results suggested that QD-labeling was stable and did not affect either cell activation or cell function. When QD-labeled cells were intravenously injected into mouse, they remained in the peripheral blood in a concentration of approximately 10% up to 5 days after injection using both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In addition, approximately 20% of QDs were detected in the kidneys, liver, lung, and spleen and could still be observed 7 days after injection. These results suggested that fluorescent probes of QDs might be useful as bioimaging tools for tracing target cells over the period of a week in vivo.  相似文献
4.
J. Swinnen 《Plant and Soil》1994,165(1):89-101
A model rhizodeposition technique to estimate the root and microbial components of 14C soil/root respiration in pulse-labelling experiments is described. The method involves the injection of model rhizodeposits, consisting of 14C-labelled glucose, root extract or root cell wall material, into the rooted soil of an unlabelled plant, simultaneously with the pulse-labelling of a separate but similar plant with 14CO2. In a growth chamber experiment with 30 day old wheat and barley the contribution of direct root respiration to 14C soil/root respiration over a 26 day period after labelling was estimated 89–95%. Estimates of direct root respiration in field-grown wheat and barley at different development stages in most cases accounted for at least 75% of 14C soil/root respiration over a 21 day period after labelling. The mineralization rate of injected 14C-glucose was positively correlated with the concentration of glucose-C established in soil. The use of the method in rhizosphere carbon budget estimations is evaluated. Communication No. 73 of the Dutch Programme on Soil Ecology of Arable Farming Systems. Communication No. 73 of the Dutch Programme on Soil Ecology of Arable Farming Systems.  相似文献
5.
Despite the fundamental importance of rhizosphere C-flow in managed and natural systems, reliable measurement/resolution of C-flow and assessment of its consequences have largely remained elusive to soil biologists. Techniques involving both radioactive (14C) and stable (13C) isotopes of carbon have made some progress in terms of studying rhizosphere C-flow. Pulse-chase techniques have been used effectively to study dynamics of C-transfer to the rhizosphere and rhizosphere microbial biomass. The information obtained through pulse-chase is strongly dependent on the chase period following the labelling event. Continuous labelling is primarily used to determine plant inputs to soil over an extended time period and includes all kinds of C input – from root turnover, root respiration, root exudation, production of mucilage, etc. One of the main constraints to both approaches is that distinguishing root from microbial respiration is difficult, if not impossible. 13C techniques have gone some way towards resolving this difficulty, although 13C signatures in the plant–soil system are not easy to interpret and detailed resolution of carbon flow through different components of the rhizosphere biomass is unlikely to be achieved in such an inherently `noisy' system. Recent developments in molecular biology now provide a new opportunity to resolve rhizosphere C-flow and its implications. Reporter gene systems where, for example, rhizobacteria are marked with lux and unstable gfp reporters, overcome the difficulty of distinguishing root and microbial C fluxes and complement the isotopic and more traditional approaches. Reporter systems have now begun to resolve the competitive C sink strengths of different components of the rhizosphere microbial community and assess how a rhizobacterial inoculum may change C-flow in applications such as disease control and rhizoremediation of contaminated land. Fusion of reporter genes to nutrient (N and P) starvation genes in rhizobacteria has also enabled in situ characterisation of nutrient depletion around the root and assessment of the impact of changes in C-flow (such as those induced by climate change) on nutrient depletion dynamics. The availability of an integrated approach involving isotopic, molecular biological and other techniques now offers an exciting new era where reliable measurement and resolution of rhizosphere C-flow (and its consequences) can contribute to our understanding of ecosystem function and to management of crop-microbe interactions.  相似文献
6.
7.
原生动物贻贝棘尾虫微管胞器的荧光标记与显示   总被引:17,自引:4,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
采用FLUTAX直接荧光标记和抗α微管蛋白抗体的间接免疫荧光标记显示,原生动物贻贝棘尾虫(Stylonychia mytilus)细胞微管胞器由口围带、波动膜、额腹横棘毛、左右缘棘毛、背纤毛等纤毛器微管骨架、纤毛器基部附属微管和其他皮层微管骨架组成。纤毛器微管骨架和基部附属微管按皮层纤毛模式定位;皮层左、右侧微管带和领肋壁微管等其他皮层微管构成细胞特定位置的皮层微管骨架,并可能为具有背腹分化的腹毛目纤毛虫所特有,对维持细胞背腹面的形态、支持附近纤毛器(如左、右缘棘毛)的运动起作用。本文较完整地阐述了其细胞骨架的三维构形,对于深入了解纤毛虫细胞微管骨架的结构和分布特征,进一步揭示微管类胞器的功能是有意义的。  相似文献
8.
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs) cleave and then re-join xyloglucan chains and may thus contribute to both wall-assembly and wall-loosening. The present experiments demonstrate the simultaneous occurrence in vivo of two types of interpolymeric transglycosylation: "integrational" (in which a newly secreted xyloglucan reacts with a previously wall-bound one) and "restructuring" (in which one previously wall-bound xyloglucan reacts with another). Xyloglucans synthesised by cultured rose (Rosa sp.) cells in "heavy" or "light" media (with [13C,2H]glucose or [12C,1H]glucose, respectively) had buoyant densities of 1.643 and 1.585 g ml-1, respectively, estimated by isopycnic centrifugation in caesium trifluoroacetate. To detect transglycosylation, we shifted heavy rose cells into light medium, then supplied a 2-h pulse of L-[1-3H]arabinose. Light [3H]xyloglucans were thus secreted into heavy, non-radioactive walls and chased by light, non-radioactive xyloglucans. At 2 h after the start of radiolabelling, the (neutral) [3H]xyloglucans were on average 29% heavy, indicating molecular grafting during integrational transglycosylation. The [3H]xyloglucans then gradually increased in density until, by 11 h, they were 38% heavy. This density increase suggests that restructuring transglycosylation reactions occurred between the now wall-bound [3H]xyloglucan and other (mainly older, i.e. heavy) wall-bound non-radioactive xyloglucans. Brefeldin A (BFA), which blocked xyloglucan secretion, did not prevent the increase in density of wall-bound [3H]xyloglucan (2-11 h). This confirms that restructuring transglycosylation occurred between pairs of previously wall-bound xyloglucans. After 7 d in BFA, the 3H was in hybrid xyloglucans in which on average 55% of the molecule was heavy. Exogenous xyloglucan oligosaccharides (competing acceptor substrates for XETs) did not affect integrational transglycosylation whereas they inhibited restructuring transglycosylation. Possible reasons for this difference are discussed. This is the first experimental evidence for restructuring transglycosylation in vivo. We argue that both integrational and restructuring transglycosylation can contribute to both wall-assembly and -loosening.  相似文献
9.
《FEBS letters》1994,340(3):226-230
The effects of synthetic rat adrenomedullin (rAM), a novel vasorelaxant peptide originally isolated from human pheochromocytoma, on receptor binding and cAMP generation were studied in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). A binding study using [125I]rAM revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity (Kd1.3 × 10−8 M) binding sites for rAM in VSMC. The apparent Ki of rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP) was 3 × 10−7 M. Affinity labeling of VSMC membranes with [125I]rAM revealed two distinct labeled bands with apparent molecular weights of 120 and 70 kDa, both of which were abolished by excess unlabeled rAM or rCGRP. rAM stimulated cAMP formation with an approximate EC50 of 10−8 M, the effect of which was additive with isoproterenol, but not with rCGRP. The rAM-induced cAMP response was unaffected by propranalol, indomethacin, or quinaerine, but inhibited by a CGRP receptor antagonist, human CGRP[8–37]. These data suggest that VSMC possesses specific AM receptors functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase with which CGRP interacts.  相似文献
10.
成年鼠缺血性脑损伤诱导nestin的表达   总被引:15,自引:1,他引:14  
Liu PC  Lu SD  Huang YL  Sun FY 《生理学报》2002,54(4):294-299
应用免疫组化和免疫荧光双标技术结合激光共聚焦扫描显微镜,观察缺血性脑损伤后脑内nestin的表达及其细胞类型。实验观察结果为,再灌后1天,在缺血中心区可见nestin阳性突起;再灌后3天和1周时,除缺血中心区外,周边I、Ⅱ、Ⅲ区均有nestin阳性突起主要与GFAP共存;2周时,nestin阳性突起变粗、变长,并与NSE的共存明显增多。上述研究结果提示,脑缺血可诱导大鼠脑缺血区域表达nestin,该表达可能与神经细胞的修复有关。  相似文献
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