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1.
Despite the fundamental importance of rhizosphere C-flow in managed and natural systems, reliable measurement/resolution of C-flow and assessment of its consequences have largely remained elusive to soil biologists. Techniques involving both radioactive (14C) and stable (13C) isotopes of carbon have made some progress in terms of studying rhizosphere C-flow. Pulse-chase techniques have been used effectively to study dynamics of C-transfer to the rhizosphere and rhizosphere microbial biomass. The information obtained through pulse-chase is strongly dependent on the chase period following the labelling event. Continuous labelling is primarily used to determine plant inputs to soil over an extended time period and includes all kinds of C input – from root turnover, root respiration, root exudation, production of mucilage, etc. One of the main constraints to both approaches is that distinguishing root from microbial respiration is difficult, if not impossible. 13C techniques have gone some way towards resolving this difficulty, although 13C signatures in the plant–soil system are not easy to interpret and detailed resolution of carbon flow through different components of the rhizosphere biomass is unlikely to be achieved in such an inherently `noisy' system. Recent developments in molecular biology now provide a new opportunity to resolve rhizosphere C-flow and its implications. Reporter gene systems where, for example, rhizobacteria are marked with lux and unstable gfp reporters, overcome the difficulty of distinguishing root and microbial C fluxes and complement the isotopic and more traditional approaches. Reporter systems have now begun to resolve the competitive C sink strengths of different components of the rhizosphere microbial community and assess how a rhizobacterial inoculum may change C-flow in applications such as disease control and rhizoremediation of contaminated land. Fusion of reporter genes to nutrient (N and P) starvation genes in rhizobacteria has also enabled in situ characterisation of nutrient depletion around the root and assessment of the impact of changes in C-flow (such as those induced by climate change) on nutrient depletion dynamics. The availability of an integrated approach involving isotopic, molecular biological and other techniques now offers an exciting new era where reliable measurement and resolution of rhizosphere C-flow (and its consequences) can contribute to our understanding of ecosystem function and to management of crop-microbe interactions.  相似文献
2.
A method for efficient isotopic labeling of recombinant proteins   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
A rapid and efficient approach for preparing isotopically labeled recombinant proteins is presented. The method is demonstrated for 13C labeling of the C-terminal domain of angiopoietin-2, 15N labeling of ubiquitin and for 2H/13C/15N labeling of the Escherichia coli outer-membrane lipoprotein Lpp-56. The production method generates cell mass using unlabeled rich media followed by exchange into a small volume of labeled media at high cell density. Following a short period for growth recovery and unlabeled metabolite clearance, the cells are induced. The expression yields obtained provide a fourfold to eightfold reduction in isotope costs using simple shake flask growths.  相似文献
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Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 plays an important role in human body's first line of defense against infection. To better understand the mechanism of action, it is critical to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of LL-37 in complex with bacterial membranes. We present a bacterial expression system that allows the incorporation of (15)N and other isotopes into the polypeptide for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The DNA sequence encoding full-length LL-37 was chemically synthesized and cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector for protein expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The peptide was expressed directly as a His-tagged fusion protein without the inclusion of its precursor sequence. LL-37 was released from the fusion by formic acid cleavage at the AspPro dipeptide bond and separated from the carrier thioredoxin by affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The peptide was identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and further confirmed by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity assays showed that the recombinant LL-37 purified from the bacterial source is as active as that from chemical synthesis. According to the antimicrobial peptide database (), 111 peptides contain a Met residue, but only 5 contain the AspPro pair, indicating a broader application of formic acid than cyanogen bromide in cleaving fusion proteins. The successful application to the expression of the 66-residue cytoplasmic tail of human MUC1 indicates that the system can be applied to other peptides as well.  相似文献
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A new isotope labeling technique for peptide segments in a protein sample was recently established using the protein splicing element intein [Yamazaki et al. (1998) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 5591–5592]. This method makes it possible to observe signals of a selected amino (N-) or carboxyl (C-) terminal region along a peptide chain. However, there is a problem with the yield of the segmentally labeled protein. In this paper, we report an increase in the yield of the protein that enables the production of sufficient amounts of segmentally 13C/15N-labeled protein samples. This was achieved by improvement of the expression level of the N-terminal fragment in cells and the efficiency of refolding into the active splicing conformation. The N-terminal fragment was expressed as a fused protein with the cellulose binding domain at its N-terminus, which was expressed as an insoluble peptide in cells and the expression level was increased. Incubation with 2.5 M urea and 50% glycerol increased the efficiency of the refolding greatly, thereby raising the final yields of the ligated proteins. The feasibility of application of the method to a high-molecular-weight protein was demonstrated by the results for a maltose binding protein consisting of 370 amino acids. All four examined joints in the maltose binding protein were successfully ligated to produce segmentally labeled protein samples.  相似文献
7.
New tools for quantitative phosphoproteome analysis.   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Recent advances in analytical methods, particularly in the area of mass spectrometry, have brought the field of proteomics to the forefront in biological science. The ultimate goal of proteomics--to characterize proteins expressed within a cell under a specific set of conditions--is daunting due to the complexity and dynamic nature the of protein population within the cell. While much of the effort has focused on developing methods to identify expressed proteins, the identification of posttranslational modifications is equally important for comprehensive proteome characterization. Of all the known posttranslational modifications, phosphorylation arguably plays the largest role in the context of cellular homeostasis. This review discusses some of the recent progress made in the development of techniques not only to identify, but also to quantitatively determine sites of phosphorylation.  相似文献
8.
A general method for stable-isotope labeling of large proteins is introduced and applied for studies of the E. coli GroE chaperone proteins by solution NMR. In addition to enabling the residue-specific (15)N-labeling of proteins on a highly deuterated background, it is also an efficient approach for uniform labeling. The method meets the requirements of high-level deuteration, minimal cross-labeling and high protein yield, which are crucial for NMR studies of structures with sizes above 150 kDa. The results obtained with the new protocol are compared to other strategies for protein labeling, and evaluated with regard to the influence of external factors on the resulting isotope labeling patterns. Applications with the GroE system show that these strategies are efficient tools for studies of structure, dynamics and intermolecular interactions in large supramolecular complexes, when combined with TROSY- and CRINEPT-based experimental NMR schemes.  相似文献
9.
Summary Biosynthetically directed fractional incorporation of13C into proteins results in nonrandom13C-labeling patterns that can be investigated by analysis of the13C–13C scalar coupling fine structures in heteronuclear13C–1H or homonuclear13C–13C correlation experiments. Previously this approach was used for obtaining stereospecific1H and13C assignments of the diastereotopic methyl groups of valine and leucine. In the present paper we investigate to what extent the labeling patterns are characteristic for other individual amino acids or groups of amino acids, and can thus be used to support the1H spin-system identifications. Studies of the hydrolysates of fractionally13C-labeled proteins showed that the 59 aliphatic carbon positions in the 20 proteinogenic amino acids exhibit 16 different types of13C–13C coupling fine structures. These provide support for the assignment of the resonances of all methyl groups in a protein, which are otherwise often poorly resolved in homonuclear1H NMR spectra. In particular, besides the individual methyl assignments in Val and Leu, unambiguous distinctions are obtained between the methyl groups of Ala and Thr, and between the - and -methyl groups of Ile. In addition to the methyl resonances, the CH2 groups of Glu and Gln can be uniquely assigned because of the large coupling constant with the -carbon, and the identification of most of the other spin systems can be supported on the basis of coupling patterns that are common to small groups of amino acid residues.Abbreviations NOE nuclear Overhauser effect - fractional13C labeling biosynthetically directed fractional13C-labeling - TOCSY total correlation spectroscopy - ROESY rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy - [13C,1H]-COSY two-dimensional13C–1H correlation spectroscopy - isotopomer isotope isomer - P22 c2 repressor c2 repressor of the salmonella phage P22 consisting of a polypeptide chain with 216 residues - P22 c2(1-76) N-terminal domain of the P22 c2 repressor with residues 1–76  相似文献
10.
蛋白质溶液NMR结构测定的一些新进展   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
新的标记技术的进展和采用稀释的液晶作为溶剂以提供额外的结构信息,提高了核磁共振技术测定蛋白质溶液三维结构的精度,扩大了分子质量测定范围.目前已经利用多维 15N,13C,2H标记NMR测定了许多分子质量为30 ku左右的蛋白质溶液结构,这一上限可能还会被进一步提高.  相似文献
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