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果粮间作生态系统功能特征研究   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
 黄淮海平原豫北地区果粮间作生态系统功能特征研究结果表明: (1)果粮间作系统(苹果、小麦、花生)是一个多植物种群,多层次结构,多功能、多效益的人工生态系统;(2,果粮间作系统对灾害性干热风、高温、低温等气象条件起到抗逆作用,能提高土壤肥力,改变系统生物种群结构,增加系统的稳定性;(3)系统的年经济产量为5218.6kg·h-1·yr-1,年生产力为17645.6kg·ha-1·yr-1,年凋落量为206.9kg·ha-1·yr-1,1988—1991年4年中,净经济效益为每公顷50781.2元,能量现存量为78.4699×1010J·ha-1,年固定能量为49.6×1010J·ha-1·yr-1,光能转化率为1.138%,营养元素N、P、K在系统的累积量分别为640.8、130.8、328.4kg·ha-1,年吸收量分别为554.5、96.7、253.9kg·ha-1·yr-1,年归还量分别为16.4、3.4,10.4kg·ha-1·yr-1,年归还率分别为:2.9%、3.5%、4.1%。  相似文献
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To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of improvement of iron nutrition of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil, both greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to investigate the rhizosphere (phytosiderophores) effects from maize, barley, oats and wheat with different phytosiderophores release rates on iron nutrition and other micronutrients in calcareous soil. Six cropping treatments were examined in a greenhouse experiment: peanut grown separately in monoculture, normal peanut/maize intercropping (two genotypes: Danyu13, Zhongdan12), peanut/barley intercropping, peanut/oats intercropping, and peanut/wheat intercropping. Additionally, we investigated in a field experiment the same five cropping systems as the greenhouse experiment (maize/peanut intercropping not including Zhongdan12). Our results show that the chlorophyll and active Fe concentrations in the young leaves of the peanut in the intercropping system with different gramineous species were much higher than those of the peanut in monoculture. In greenhouse conditions, the Fe concentration in the shoots of peanut plants grown in the intercropping systems of two maize genotypes separately were 1.40–1.44, 1.47–1.64 and 1.15–1.42 times higher respectively than those of peanut plants grown in monocropping at 55, 60 and 70 days. In particular, the Fe concentration in shoots of peanut plants grown in the intercropping systems of barley, oats and wheat were not only higher than those in monocropping but also higher than those in peanut intercropped cropping with maize. In the field, the concentration of Fe in shoot of intercropped peanut plants in rows 1–3 from gramineous species were significantly higher than in monocropping at the flowering stage. Simultaneously with iron nutrition variation in peanut, Zn and Cu concentrations of intercropped grown peanut increased significantly compared to those in monocropping in the greenhouse experiment, and different intercropping treatments generally increased the Zn and Cu content in the shoot of peanut in the field. Systemic mechanisms may be involved in adaptation to nutrient stresses at the whole plant level. The study suggests that a reasonable intercropping system of nutrient efficient species should be considered to prevent or mitigate iron and zinc deficiency of plants in agricultural practice.  相似文献
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The effects of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on plant biomass production and N allocation in model intercropping systems of winter wheat and white clover were evaluated in two pot experiments. Wheat and wheat-clover mixtures were grown in a low-organic loam soil, earthworms were added at densities comparable to field population densities and the experiments were terminated 48 and 17 d after earthworm introductions. In both experiments, earthworms significantly increased the biomass and N uptake of wheat while they had generally no effects on clover. As a result, earthworm activity increased the proportion of wheat biomass in the total plant biomass of the mixture. Nitrogen budgets of the experiment lasting 48 d indicated that additional N in the system made available by earthworm activity was primarily taken up by the wheat. Earthworms also affected intra-plant N allocation in wheat which had significantly higher shoot:root N ratios when earthworms were present. When clover was labelled with 15N in the experiment which lasted 17 d, endogeic earthworms significantly reduced the amounts of 15N excess transferred from living or decomposing clover roots to accompanying wheat plants. Earthworms assimilated small quantities of 15N tracer from decomposing clover roots but not from living clover roots. The results of these model experiments suggest that earthworms can affect the balance between intercropped cereals and legumes by altering intra- and inter-plant N allocation. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
4.
甘肃河西地区地势平坦,光照充足,井渠配套,宜于耕作种植,是我国发展商品粮的主要地区之一。80年代初,甘肃省科委组织力量在该地区开展的“主要作物高产栽培技术和综合技术措施研究”,确立了间套种为河西平川灌区农业耕作制度改革的方向。  相似文献
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该试验在玉米单作茬口、玉米-花生间作茬口(间作茬口)、花生单作茬口共3种茬口,以及0 kg P_2O_5·hm~(-2)(P_0)和180 kg P_2O_5·hm~(-2)(P_1) 2个磷水平下,研究了间作茬口与施磷对冬小麦分蘖、叶面积指数(LAI)、干物质积累、光合特性及产量的影响机制,为玉米花生间作与小麦-玉米复种轮作提供理论依据。结果表明:(1)间作茬口较玉米茬口显著提高了冬小麦有效分蘖数、LAI、净光合速率和干物质积累量,并提高了冬小麦旗叶的SPAD值、CO_2饱和点、光饱和点及最大净光合速率(P_(nmax))、表观量子效率(AQY)、羧化效率(CE)、最大羧化速率(V_(cmax))、最大RUBP再生的电子传递速率(J_(max))和最大磷酸丙糖利用速率(V_(TPU)),且CE、V_(cmax)、V_(TPU)的增幅均达到显著水平(P0.05),有效改善了冬小麦产量构成,显著提高籽粒产量(P0.05)。(2)间作茬口较花生茬口提高了冬小麦乳熟期的P_(nmax)、AQY、CE,增加了穗粒数和粒重,提高了产量。(3)与不施磷相比,施磷180 kg P_2O_5·hm~(-2)显著促进间作茬口冬小麦生长,显著提高冬小麦旗叶的SPAD值、P_(nmax)、AQY、CE、V_(cmax)、J_(max)、V_(TPU)和籽粒产量(P0.05)。研究发现,间作茬口较玉米茬口能有效增强冬小麦旗叶表观量子效率和CO_2羧化能力,显著提高小麦花后光合能力,促进冬小麦生长,从而增加穗粒数、粒重和籽粒产量,且间作茬口结合施磷180 kg P_2O_5·hm~(-2)效果更好。  相似文献
6.
选择两种茬口(轮作茬、连作茬)和6种植物材料(党参、大蒜、玉米、黄芪、苦参、向日葵),组成党参单作和间作6种种植模式,设置茬口和间作模式两因素田间随机区组试验,通过监测不同生长时期党参的生长指标(蔓长、主根长、主根直径、地下部分鲜干重)、根部产量及品质指标(根部多糖含量、炔苷含量、醇溶性浸出物含量和灰分含量)的变化衡量不同茬口和间作植物对党参连作障碍的缓解效应。结果表明:(1)轮作茬口下党参单作及各间作处理对党参生长、品质和产量的改善效果都较连作茬口下明显,且两茬口下各间作处理的改善效果都较党参单作明显。(2)与向日葵、大蒜和玉米间作处理对两茬口党参的主根长、主根直径、地下部分鲜干重的提升效果比党参单作和其余间作处理(与黄芪、苦参间作)更显著。(3)大蒜和向日葵间作处理能够显著提高两茬口党参根部产量,尤其大蒜表现最优,与其间作的轮作茬和连作茬党参分别较各自对照增产49.92%和22.55%。(4)与大蒜间作能有效提升两茬口党参根部多糖含量、炔苷含量和醇溶性浸出物的含量,党参单作和其余间作处理对两茬口连作党参的品质提升效果不及大蒜间作处理理想。研究发现,从党参长势及根部产量和品质综合分析,两茬口下党参与大蒜间作最有利于党参植株生长,能有效缓解党参连作障碍,并显著提高其药用部位的产量和品质,且轮作茬口下的提高效应更明显。  相似文献
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