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Abstract Laminated microbial sediment ecosystems which develop in the upper tidal zone of Scapa Flow beaches, Orkney Islands were investigated with respect to depth profiles of chlorophyll a , bacteriochlorophyll a , pH, redox, oxygen and the following inorganic sulfur compounds: free sulfide, FeS, polysulfides, polythionates, elemental sulfur and thiosulfate. In addition, particle size distribution and light penetration were determined at all sampling locations.
Three main types of laminated sediment ecosystems were recognized, designated the 'classical' type (layer of cyanobacteria underlain by layer of purple sulfur bacteria), the 'single-layer' type (chlorophyll a containing organisms absent, purple sulfur bacteria at sediment surface), and the 'inverted' type (chlorophyll a containing organisms underlying purple sulfur bacteria). The dominant purple sulfur bacterium was Thiocapsa roseopersicina and Chromatium vinosum was observed less commonly. The principal cyanobacterium found in these sulfureta was Oscillatoria sp.
The depth horizon at which maximum populations of purple sulfur bacteria were recorded often did not coincide with the sulfide/oxygen interface but was located closer to the sediment surface where polysulfides, polythionates, elemental sulfur and occasionally thiosulfate were present. The structure of these sulfureta is discussed in relation to the chemolithotrophic growth capacities of Thiocapsa in the presence of oxygen.  相似文献
2.
烟气SO2引起的酸雨污染是当代世界面临的重大环境问题之一。对烟道气脱硫用微生物—氧化亚铁硫杆菌(Thiobacillus ferrooxidans,T.f)进行了介绍,并在文献分析的基础上,对T.f催化氧化S(IV)机理进行了讨论。  相似文献
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Based upon their photosynthetic nature and the presence of a unique light-harvesting antenna structure, the chlorosome, the photosynthetic green bacteria are defined as a distinctive group in the Bacteria. However, members of the two taxa that comprise this group, the green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobi) and the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (Chloroflexales), are otherwise quite different, both physiologically and phylogenetically. This review summarizes how genome sequence information facilitated studies of the biosynthesis and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in two model organisms that represent these taxa, Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus. The genes involved in bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c and carotenoid biosynthesis in these two organisms were identified by sequence homology with known BChl a and carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, gene cluster analysis in Cfx. aurantiacus, and gene inactivation studies in Chl. tepidum. Based on these results, BChl a and BChl c biosynthesis is similar in the two organisms, whereas carotenoid biosynthesis differs significantly. In agreement with its facultative anaerobic nature, Cfx. aurantiacus in some cases apparently produces structurally different enzymes for heme and BChl biosynthesis, in which one enzyme functions under anoxic conditions and the other performs the same reaction under oxic conditions. The Chl. tepidum mutants produced with modified BChl c and carotenoid species also allow the functions of these pigments to be studied in vivo.  相似文献
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Four eubacterial strains able to grow on carbon disulfide (CS2) as sole energy substrate were isolated from soil and leaves of the CS2-producing tree Quercus lobata. Three of the isolates (strains KS1, KS2, and KL1) were gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, and heterotrophic, and capable of growth on a wide range of inorganic and organic sulfur compounds. Biochemical and physiological properties differed slightly among the three strains, but all are proposed to be novel thiobacillus species. Growth yields on CS2 in batch and chemostat culture ranged from 3.3 g dry wt/mol CS2 (batch) to a maximum growth yield (Ymax) of 11.1 g dry wt/mol (chemostat). Chemostat data for two of the strains growing, autotrophically on thiosulfate gave Ymax values of 7.4 and 7.1 g dry wt/mol, which fall within the range observed with thiobacilli. The three new Thiobacillus strains had DNA containing 39.8 (KS2), 47.8 (KS1), and 50.5 (KL1) mol% G+C. All three were unusual in being able to grow not only on thiosulfate (aerobically or with denitrification), but also on CS2, carbonyl sulfide and methylated sulfides as sole energy substrates, and one was unique in being able to grow also on substituted thiophenes. They are the first organisms described to be capable, of anaerobic growth with denitrification on CS2. The fourth isolate (strain KL2) was gram-positive non-motile and nonspore-forming, with 39.0 mol% G+C. It had a restricted range of sulfur-containing growth substrates, could not grow methylotrophically or on autotrophic substrates other than CS2, and is not yet classifiable These organisms extend the range of eubacteria known to be capable of CS2 breakdown and demonstrate that several types of facultatively chemolithotrophic bacteria, able to grow exclusively on CS2, are associated with a CS2-producing plant.  相似文献
5.
Abstract Mercapto-2-ethanol was examined as a nontoxic and non-metabolizable reducing agent for growth of methanogens. It was used as a medium reductant to prove that Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and Methanobacterium strain ivanov grew with either sulfide or elemental sulfur as the sole source of nutrient sulfur but not with sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite or dithionite. The later inorganic sulfur sources, except sulfate, were potent inhibitors of growth and methanogenesis at 5 mM. The practical utility of mercapto-2-ethanol as a reducing agent and the toxicity of inorganic sulfur sources on metabolic activity of the methanogens are discussed.  相似文献
6.
硫化氢(H2S)是继一氧化氮(NO)和一氧化碳(CO)后发现的第3种气态信号分子,但其细菌生理学研究才刚刚起步。本文根据作者对奥内达希瓦氏菌的研究,结合新近文献,就细菌的H2S产生机理及其生理功能作了较为全面的阐述。细菌的H2S产生途径主要有2条,一是通过降解半胱氨酸产生,二是通过厌氧呼吸产生。产生的H2S除可为互生性微生物提供能源、供氢体和无机矿质营养外,还具有抑制竞争性微生物的生长,有效占领生态位的作用。H2S在氧化应答中也起着重要的作用,一方面可抑制过氧化氢酶活性,增加过氧化氢对细菌的杀灭效果;另一方面可作为信号分子激活细菌的氧化应答,诱导拮抗系统的表达,保护细胞免受氧化损伤。这两种看似“矛盾”的作用与H2S的处理时间有关:短时间处理以抑制为主,而延长处理时间则以保护为主。细菌H2S产生机理及生理功能的阐明可为硫元素生物地球化学循环规律的揭示和感染性病原细菌的控制提供有益的参考。  相似文献
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