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1.
马旭俊  朱大海 《遗传》2003,25(2):225-231
超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)在需氧原核生物和真核生物中广泛存在,是活性氧清除系统中第一个发挥作用的抗氧化酶。植物正常代谢过程和在各种环境胁迫下均能产生活性氧和自由基,活性氧和自由基的积累引起细胞结构和功能的破坏。SOD岐化超氧物阴离子自由基生成过氧化氢和分子氧,在保护细胞免受氧化损伤过程中具有十分重要的作用。本文综述了SOD的功能、在细胞中的分布、表达调控和与植物抗逆性的关系。 Abstract:Superoxide Dismutases (SODs) are ubiquitously expressed antioxidant enzyme in aerobic organisms and catalyze dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen and molecular oxygen,the first step in active oxygen-scavenging systems.SODs play a central role in protecting cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolic activity or as a result of various environmental stresses.This paper reviews the expression and regulation of Sod genes and their functional role(s) during development and in response to stresses.  相似文献
2.
小麦旗叶自然衰老过程中清除活性氧能力的变化   总被引:89,自引:0,他引:89  
野生一粒小麦(Triticum boeoticum Boiss)、栽培小麦“扬麦五号”(T.aestivum L.)的旗叶自然衰老过程中,活性氧清除系统中各部分的清除能力下降是不均衡的。在光合速率高值持续期(叶绿素含量缓降期),SOD的活力略有下降,过氧化氢酶(CAT)活力却迅速下降,同时抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(ASP)活力呈现先上升后下降的趋势,上述SOD、CAT、ASP活力变化的不均衡,最终导致H_2O_2的迅速累积,从而使叶片迅速进入衰老(叶绿素含量速降期),于是SOD活力迅速下降。野生一粒小麦活性氧清除系统中各部分清除能力失衡过快,可能是其早衰的原因之一。H_2O_2的迅速累积与叶片衰老的启动密切相关。  相似文献
3.
活性氧清除系统对干旱胁迫的响应机制   总被引:81,自引:8,他引:73  
干旱胁迫是影响植物生长发育的主要因子,干旱引起活性氧自由基增加,使植物细胞遭受氧化胁迫.植物体通过酶促和非酶促两大保护系统清除活性氧,活性氧自由基的变化也会引起抗氧化防御系统的不同变化.同时干旱胁迫下活性氧的产生也与ABA的积累、脯氨酸的积累以及叶绿素荧光猝灭密切相关,因此了解活性氧清除系统对干旱胁迫的响应机制以及活性氧在植物生理生化过程中的作用是非常必要的。  相似文献
4.
Reactive Oxygen Species and the Central Nervous System   总被引:76,自引:0,他引:76  
Radicals are species containing one or more unpaired electrons, such as nitric oxide (NO.). The oxygen radical superoxide (O2.-) and the nonradical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are produced during normal metabolism and perform several useful functions. Excessive production of O2.- and H2O2 can result in tissue damage, which often involves generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radical (.OH) and other oxidants in the presence of "catalytic" iron or copper ions. An important form of antioxidant defense is the storage and transport of iron and copper ions in forms that will not catalyze formation of reactive radicals. Tissue injury, e.g., by ischemia or trauma, can cause increased metal ion availability and accelerate free radical reactions. This may be especially important in the brain because areas of this organ are rich in iron and CSF cannot bind released iron ions. Oxidative stress on nervous tissue can produce damage by several interacting mechanisms, including increases in intracellular free Ca2+ and, possibly, release of excitatory amino acids. Recent suggestions that free radical reactions are involved in the neurotoxicity of aluminum and in damage to the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease are reviewed. Finally, the nature of antioxidants is discussed, it being suggested that antioxidant enzymes and chelators of transition metal ions may be more generally useful protective agents than chain-breaking antioxidants. Careful precautions must be used in the design of antioxidants for therapeutic use.  相似文献
5.
衰老叶片和叶绿体中H_2O_2的累积与膜脂过氧化的关系   总被引:67,自引:0,他引:67  
在自然衰老和ABA处理的叶片和叶绿体中活性氧H_2O_2均比对照明显增高。外加H_2O_2刺激水稻叶绿体膜脂过氧化作用。叶绿体的丙二醛含量随H_2O_2浓度、光照时间、光照强度及叶绿体完整性而变化。AsA、GSH、SOD、甘露醇和过氧化氢酶对外源H_2O_2引起的膜脂过氧化有缓解作用,Fe~(2+)有刺激作用。而H_2O_2对叶绿体过氧化损伤主要是转化为OH之故。  相似文献
6.
Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is an important pathophysiological process. The mechanism of HPH is still not fully understood. Recent studies showed that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) could relax vascular smooth muscles and inhibit the proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Our study showed that both the gene expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), one of the H(2)S generating enzymes, and the activity of CSE were suppressed in lung tissues during HPH. And the plasma level of H(2)S was decreased during HPH. Exogenous supply of H(2)S could increase the plasma level of H(2)S, enhance CSE activity, and up-regulate CSE gene expression in lung tissue. At the same time, exogenous supply of H(2)S could oppose the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and lessen the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling during HPH. The results showed that endogenous H(2)S system was involved and exogenous H(2)S could exert beneficial effect on the pathogenesis of HPH.  相似文献
7.
Antioxidants, Oxidative Damage and Oxygen Deprivation Stress: a Review   总被引:56,自引:1,他引:55  
Oxidative stress is induced by a wide range of environmentalfactors including UV stress, pathogen invasion (hypersensitivereaction), herbicide action and oxygen shortage. Oxygen deprivationstress in plant cells is distinguished by three physiologicallydifferent states: transient hypoxia, anoxia and reoxygenation.Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is characteristicfor hypoxia and especially for reoxygenation. Of the ROS, hydrogenperoxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2·–) are bothproduced in a number of cellular reactions, including the iron-catalysedFenton reaction, and by various enzymes such as lipoxygenases,peroxidases, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase. The main cellularcomponents susceptible to damage by free radicals are lipids(peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in membranes), proteins(denaturation), carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Consequencesof hypoxia-induced oxidative stress depend on tissue and/orspecies (i.e. their tolerance to anoxia), on membrane properties,on endogenous antioxidant content and on the ability to inducethe response in the antioxidant system. Effective utilizationof energy resources (starch, sugars) and the switch to anaerobicmetabolism and the preservation of the redox status of the cellare vital for survival. The formation of ROS is prevented byan antioxidant system: low molecular mass antioxidants (ascorbicacid, glutathione, tocopherols), enzymes regenerating the reducedforms of antioxidants, and ROS-interacting enzymes such as SOD,peroxidases and catalases. In plant tissues many phenolic compounds(in addition to tocopherols) are potential antioxidants: flavonoids,tannins and lignin precursors may work as ROS-scavenging compounds.Antioxidants act as a cooperative network, employing a seriesof redox reactions. Interactions between ascorbic acid and glutathione,and ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds are well known. Underoxygen deprivation stress some contradictory results on theantioxidant status have been obtained. Experiments on overexpressionof antioxidant production do not always result in the enhancementof the antioxidative defence, and hence increased antioxidativecapacity does not always correlate positively with the degreeof protection. Here we present a consideration of factors whichpossibly affect the effectiveness of antioxidant protectionunder oxygen deprivation as well as under other environmentalstresses. Such aspects as compartmentalization of ROS formationand antioxidant localization, synthesis and transport of antioxidants,the ability to induce the antioxidant defense and cooperation(and/or compensation) between different antioxidant systemsare the determinants of the competence of the antioxidant system.  相似文献
8.
线粒体,活性氧和细胞凋亡   总被引:55,自引:1,他引:54       下载免费PDF全文
在能量代谢和自由基代谢中,线粒体均占据着十分重要的地位.通过呼吸链电子漏途径,线粒体产生大量超氧阴离子,并通过链式反应形成对机体有损伤作用的活性氧.通过呼吸链电子漏,氧化磷酸化解偶联,线粒体内膜产生通透性转变孔道(PTP)及Box-和/或PTP-介导的细胞色素c向胞质的转移等种种因素,线粒体参与一般抗氧化防御及细胞凋亡等重要生理过程的调控.在与线粒体相关的细胞凋亡中,活性氧的信号作用是十分明显的.  相似文献
9.
采用15%的聚乙二醇-6000(PEG-6000)对扬麦158三叶一心期的幼苗根部进行轻度渗透胁迫处理,并通过添加不同浓度的一氧化氮(nitric oxide,NO)供体硝普钠(sodium nitropussidi,SNP)和相应的对照(BO-3/NO-2),研究外源NO处理对渗透胁迫下小麦幼苗叶片膜脂过氧化作用的影响.结果发现,0.1 nnol/L的SNP能降低渗透胁迫造成的小麦幼苗叶片脂氧合酶(lipoxygenase,LOX)活性的提高,降低超氧阴离子(O-2)的产生速率和质膜相对透性的增加以及丙二醛(MDA)和H2O2的累积;0.1 mmol/L的SNP还能够诱导超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活性,加速脯氨酸(Pro)的累积,而0.5mmo1/L的SNP和0.1mmo1/L的NO3/NO2(对照)处理的效果则不明显.上述结果表明低浓度NO对渗透胁迫造成的膜脂过氧化有明显的缓解效应.  相似文献
10.
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a newly found modulator in vascular system. This work showed that gene expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), a H(2)S generating enzyme, and the activity of CSE in thoracic aorta were suppressed in hypertension rats. The plasma level of H(2)S also decreased in those rats. Exogenous administration of H(2)S could increase the plasma level of H(2)S and enhance the CSE activity of aorta. Exogenous administration of H(2)S also attenuated the elevation of pressure and lessened the aorta structural remodeling during the development of hypertension. In WKY rats, the gene expression and activity of CSE also decreased when the endogenous production of H(2)S was deprived by administration of DL-propargylglycine (specific inhibitor of CSE), accompanying the elevated pressure and the development of vascular remodeling. The results showed that endogenous H(2)S system was involved in both the maintenance of basal blood pressure and the development of hypertension. Exogenous H(2)S could exert beneficial effect on the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension.  相似文献
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