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Sequences encoding the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (VH) domains were engineered in a new general purpose vector to transform plants via Agrobacterium. The expression of an isolated VH domain (IVD) after introduction into the plant genome has been monitored by northern, western and immuno-histochemical analysis. Immunoblotting showed that the polypeptide was stably expressed and accounted for up to 1% of the soluble protein fraction. It is therefore proposed that single immunoglobulin domains of suitable specificity expressed in plants may constitute an effective system to inhibit the activity of molecules involved in plant pathology or plant development.  相似文献
The aim of this study was to improve production level of llama heavy chain antibody fragments (VHH) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae while retaining functional characteristics. For this purpose, the DNA shuffling technique was used on llama VHH fragments specific for the azo-dye reactive red-6. In the DNA shuffling process, three parental llama VHH with high amino acid sequence identity with significant differences in production and functional characteristics were used. From these parental sequences, a S. cerevisiae library was created and 16 antigen specific shuffled VHH fragments were selected. We found that these shuffled VHH fragments were, (i) unique in sequence; (ii) composed of two or three parental sequences; (iii) in three VHHs point mutations occurred; and (iv) antigen specificity was not changed. The four highest producers in the yeast S. cerevisiae were selected and production, affinity, and antigen binding at 90°C were compared with parental VHHs. One shuffled VHH was enhanced both in production (3.4-fold) and affinity (four-fold). A second shuffled VHH displayed increased production (1.9-fold), and improved stability (2.4-fold) in antigen binding at 90°C. Structural analysis suggested that improved antigen binding is associated with the A24→V24 substitution, which reduces the size of the hydrophobic pit at the llama VHH surface. We demonstrate that it is possible to improve desired characteristics of the same VHH fragment simultaneously using DNA shuffling. Finally, this is one of the first examples of DNA shuffling improving temperature stability of an antibody fragment.  相似文献
The development of a number of different solid tumours is associated with over-expression of ErbB1, or the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and this over-expression is often correlated with poor prognosis of patients. Therefore, this receptor tyrosine kinase is considered to be an attractive target for antibody-based therapy. Indeed, antibodies to the EGFR have already proven their value for the treatment of several solid tumours, especially in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment regimens. Variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies (called Nanobodies) have superior properties compared with classical antibodies in that they are small, very stable, easy to produce in large quantities and easy to re-format into multi-valent or multi-specific proteins. Furthermore, they can specifically be selected for a desired function by phage antibody display. In this report, we describe the successful selection and the characterisation of antagonistic anti-EGFR Nanobodies. By using a functional selection strategy, Nanobodies that specifically competed for EGF binding to the EGFR were isolated from "immune" phage Nanobody repertoires. The selected antibody fragments were found to efficiently inhibit EGF binding to the EGFR without acting as receptor agonists themselves. In addition, they blocked EGF-mediated signalling and EGF-induced cell proliferation. In an in vivo murine xenograft model, the Nanobodies were effective in delaying the outgrowth of A431-derived solid tumours. This is the first report describing the successful use of untagged Nanobodies for the in vivo treatment of solid tumours. The results show that functional phage antibody selection, coupled to the rational design of Nanobodies, permits the rapid development of novel anti-cancer antibody-based therapeutics.  相似文献
Proteomics research has delivered many novel tumor targets. However, due to key limitations, it does not specifically identify targets that are most accessible for drug delivery, such as cell-surface antigens. A novel tumor antigen discovery platform based on screening a single domain antibody (sdAb) library against tumor cells and subsequently identifying the corresponding antigens of the isolated antibodies is described. An sdAb, AFAI, specific for non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549 cell line) was isolated from a phage library derived from the heavy chain antibody repertoire of a llama. The homopentamerization property of a non-toxic verotoxin B-subunit was exploited to make the ES1 pentabody, a pentameric form of AFAI. Pentamerization improved the binding of the AFAI to A549 cells dramatically and greatly facilitated antigen identification by a Western blotting/mass spectrometry approach. The antigen of ES1, which is present only in the hydrophobic, not in the hydrophilic, fraction of A549 cellular proteins, was identified as carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEA6). CEA6 was observed to be acidic and highly glycosylated, and to exist in multiple glycoforms. The results show that the platform described here should find wide application in antigen discovery, and demonstrated that the pentabodies are very useful immunological reagents for proteomics.  相似文献
一种构建改形单域抗体的方法   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
为验证一种构建改形单域抗体的实用新方法,与以往方法不同的是,该方法不需要对抗体进行空间结构模拟,以确定人源抗体的FRs接受序列及在人源FRs接受序列中哪些氨基酸残基需要突变,并且该方法将抗体的改形与亲和力成熟于同一过程完成,利用该方法构建了改形抗CD28重链单域抗体,根据一种鼠源抗CD28重链单域抗体的氨基酸序列,于GenBank中查得两条与之最同源的人源抗体序列,利用其中一条的FRs作为改形抗体的主框架进行改形构建,将鼠源抗体的CDR区插入到人源FR区后,对人源FR区的一些氨基酸残基进行替换突变,替换的氨基酸残基数及替换原则主要是根据对查到的人源抗体序列,鼠源抗体序列,以及这些序列与Kabat分类中的种属序列进行的比较,为了增加改形抗体基因的多样性,对要被替换的氨基酸残基在基因合成中采用简并的方式,使要被替换的氨基酸残基和替换的氨基酸残基都有机会出现,二者出现的几率各为50%,同时,在将大小不同的合成核苷酸片段采用重叠PCR扩增以获得完整改形抗体基因时,采用高Mg^2 浓度下和使用TaqDNA聚合酶,以进一步随机引入突变,利用重叠PCR产物构建了一个噬菌体抗体库,经过3轮淘选后,获得了几个具有较高免疫学活性的改形抗体,对其中的两个抗体进行了进一步研究,将两个抗体的基因在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中表达,复性后的表达蛋白仍具有较高的免疫学活性,结果表明该方法是有效可行的。  相似文献
基于重链抗体构建的单域抗体研究进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
崔华清  王清明   《生物工程学报》2005,21(3):497-501
在骆驼血清中存在天然的缺失轻链的重链抗体(heavy chainantibody ,HCAb) ,克隆重链抗体的可变区构建的只由一个重链可变区组成的单域抗体称为VHH抗体(variabledomainofheavychainofheavy chainantibody ,VHH)。研究发现,VHH抗体具有易表达、可溶性好、稳定性强等优点。另外,骆驼的重链抗体与人VH3家族抗体同源,对人VH3家族抗体的重链可变区进行类似VHH的特征性改造,可以使这些抗体在保持亲和力、特异性不变或者变化很小的情况下,优化抗体的其它性质。已有的研究表明VHH抗体作为一种小型化的基因工程抗体在基础研究、药物开发等领域有广阔的应用前景。  相似文献
Antibodies against receptors that undergo transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been used as vectors to target drugs or therapeutic peptides into the brain. We have recently discovered a novel single domain antibody, FC5, which transmigrates across human cerebral endothelial cells in vitro and the BBB in vivo. The purpose of this study was to characterize mechanisms of FC5 endocytosis and transcytosis across the BBB and its putative receptor on human brain endothelial cells. The transport of FC5 across human brain endothelial cells was polarized, charge independent and temperature dependent, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. FC5 taken up by human brain endothelial cells co-localized with clathrin but not with caveolin-1 by immunochemistry and was detected in clathrin-enriched subcellular fractions by western blot. The transendothelial migration of FC5 was reduced by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, K+ depletion and chlorpromazine, but was insensitive to caveolae inhibitors, filipin, nystatin or methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Following internalization, FC5 was targeted to early endosomes, bypassed late endosomes/lysosomes and remained intact after transcytosis. The transcytosis process was inhibited by agents that affect actin cytoskeleton or intracellular signaling through PI3-kinase. Pretreatment of human brain endothelial cells with wheatgerm agglutinin, sialic acid, alpha(2,3)-neuraminidase or Maackia amurensis agglutinin that recognizes alpha(2,3)-, but not with Sambucus nigra agglutinin that recognizes alpha(2,6) sialylgalactosyl residues, significantly reduced FC5 transcytosis. FC5 failed to recognize brain endothelial cells-derived lipids, suggesting that it binds luminal alpha(2,3)-sialoglycoprotein receptor which triggers clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This putative receptor may be a new target for developing brain-targeting drug delivery vectors.  相似文献
Summary. Plasma samples of alpacas and llamas were analysed by a simple method of two-dimensional (2-D) agarose gel (pH 8.6)-horizontal polyacrylamide gel (pH 9.0) electrophoresis, followed by general protein staining of gels. Genetic polymorphism in both species is described for α 1 B-glycoprotein (α 1 B) and three other unidentified proteins designated prealbumin (Pr), postalbumin 1 and 2 (Pal and Pa2). α 1 B was identified by cross-reactivity with antisera for human and pig α 1 B. Altogether, two alleles of Pr, two of Pa1, five of α 1 B and three of Pa2 are described. Most of the alleles were present in alpacas and llamas. Alpacas showed a high degree of polymorphism at all four loci. Llamas showed considerable polymorphism at only the Pa1 and Pa2 loci. The theoretical probability of exclusion (P e ) of an incorrectly assigned parent was estimated to be about 80% in each species by typing for the six polymorphic plasma proteins reported so far in these species. The given method of 2-D electrophoresis revealed no fixed differences in protein mobilities that discriminate between llamas and alpacas.  相似文献
将抗癌胚抗原(CEA)单克隆抗体的重链可变区与人的恒定区(Cγ3) 连接, 制备抗癌胚抗原嵌合重链用于放免治疗及其他导向治疗, 可减少人抗鼠抗体反应(HAMA) 。为纯化及核素标记抗体, 将嵌合重链基因与核心链霉亲和素基因融合。融合基因在大肠杆菌得到高效表达, 表达量占菌体总蛋白的24 % 。SDSPAGE 和蛋白质印迹图谱显示表达产物分子量为70 kD, 与其基因编码蛋白质的理论推算值相符。以HRP标记的生物素作为抗体进行蛋白质印迹, 在70 kD 处可见表达条带, 表明融合蛋白能特异性地与生物素结合, 使嵌合重链经生物素柱进行廉价纯化成为可能。表达产物在胞内主要以不溶性的包含体存在, 经变性和复性处理后, RIA 表明表达产物具有结合其特异性抗原CEA的能力。  相似文献
Myosin was partially purified from ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. Tetrahymena myosin has a fibrous tail with two globular heads at one end and contains 220-kDa heavy chains. The tail length of the molecule (200 nm) is longer than that of myosins from other animals (approximately 160 nm). A sample after HPLC column chromatography containing 220-kDa peptide showed a myosin-specific K+-/NH4+-EDTA-ATPase activity. Polyclonal anti-crayfish myosin heavy chain antibody reacted with Tetrahymena 220-kDa myosin heavy chain, and monoclonal anti-pan myosin antibody reacted with Tetrahymena 180-kDa peptide. The isolated 180-kDa peptide was identified as a clathrin heavy chain.  相似文献
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