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Most studies involving prebiotic oligosaccharides have been carried out using inulin and its fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) derivatives, together with various forms of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Although many intestinal bacteria are able to grow on these carbohydrates, most investigations have demonstrated that the growth of bifidobacteria, and to a lesser degree lactobacilli, is particularly favoured. Because of their safety, stability, organoleptic properties, resistance to digestion in the upper bowel and fermentability in the colon, as well as their abilities to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, these prebiotics are being increasingly incorporated into the Western diet. Inulin-derived oligosaccharides and GOS are mildly laxative, but can result in flatulence and osmotic diarrhoea if taken in large amounts. However, their effects on large bowel habit are relatively minor. Although the literature dealing with the health significance of prebiotics is not as extensive as that concerning probiotics, considerable evidence has accrued showing that consumption of GOS and FOS can have significant health benefits, particularly in relation to their putative anti-cancer properties, influence on mineral absorption, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammatory and other immune effects such as atopic disease. In many instances, prebiotics seem to be more effective when used as part of a synbiotic combination.  相似文献
Oral exposure to lectins or the presence or absence of bacteria in the rat small intestine were shown by histological methods using anti-lectin antibodies or digoxigenin-labelled lectins to have major effects on the state of glycosylation of lumenal membranes and cytoplasmic glycoconjugates of epithelial cells. Taken together with the dramatic effects of exposure to lectins on gut function, metabolism and bacterial ecology, this can be used as a basis for new perspectives of biomedical manipulations to improve health. Abbreviations: DIG, digoxigenin-labelled; POD, peroxidase-labelled; Spf, specific pathogen-free; TBS, Saline (0.9% w/v NaCl solution) buffered with 0.05m Tris-glycine, pH 7.8; PAP, antibody-peroxidase-antiperoxidase. For lectins see Table 1.  相似文献
Utilisation of protein by human gut bacteria   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Abstract Mixed populations of human gut bacteria degraded cas casein by producing a variety of cell-bound and extracellular proteolytic enzymes. Casein was initially hydrolysed to TCA soluble peptides which were subsequently broken down to volatile fatty acids, ammonia, dicarboxylic acids and a range of phenolic compounds. Amino acids did not accumulate to any extent during casein breakdown, suggesting that the rate of peptide hydrolysis was the limiting step in protein utilisation by these bacteria. Similar fermentation products were produced from bovine serum albumin, however, the insoluble protein collagen was considerably more resistant to degradation by the colonic microflora, as evidenced by the reduced quantities of fermentation end-products formed.  相似文献
Symbiotic bacteria often help their hosts acquire nutrients from their diet, showing trends of co-evolution and independent acquisition by hosts from the same trophic levels. While these trends hint at important roles for biotic factors, the effects of the abiotic environment on symbiotic community composition remain comparably understudied. In this investigation, we examined the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the gut bacterial communities of fish from different taxa, trophic levels and habitats. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of 25 16S rRNA libraries revealed that salinity, trophic level and possibly host phylogeny shape the composition of fish gut bacteria. When analysed alongside bacterial communities from other environments, fish gut communities typically clustered with gut communities from mammals and insects. Similar consideration of individual phylotypes (vs. communities) revealed evolutionary ties between fish gut microbes and symbionts of animals, as many of the bacteria from the guts of herbivorous fish were closely related to those from mammals. Our results indicate that fish harbour more specialized gut communities than previously recognized. They also highlight a trend of convergent acquisition of similar bacterial communities by fish and mammals, raising the possibility that fish were the first to evolve symbioses resembling those found among extant gut fermenting mammals.  相似文献
Landscape context affects predator–prey interactions and predator diet composition, yet little is known about landscape effects on insect gut microbiomes, a determinant of physiology and condition. Here, we combine laboratory and field experiments to examine the effects of landscape context on the gut bacterial community and body condition of predatory insects. Under laboratory conditions, we found that prey diversity increased bacterial richness in insect guts. In the field, we studied the performance and gut microbiota of six predatory insect species along a landscape complexity gradient in two local habitat types (soybean fields vs. prairie). Insects from soy fields had richer gut bacteria and lower fat content than those from prairies, suggesting better feeding conditions in prairies. Species origin mediated landscape context effects, suggesting differences in foraging of exotic and native predators on a landscape scale. Overall, our study highlights complex interactions among gut microbiota, predator identity, and landscape context.  相似文献
The goal of this study is to identify and characterize the cellulose degrading microorganisms in the larval gut of the white grub beetle, Lepidiota mansueta. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated and tested for cellulolytic activity using soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degrading assays. Of these strains, five (FGB1, FB2, MB1, MB2, and HB1) degrade cellulose. Cellulolytic activity was determined based on formation of clear zone and cellulolytic index on CMC plate media. The highest cellulolytic index (2.14) was found in FGB1. Partial 16S rDNA sequencing, morphological, and biochemical tests were used to identify and characterize the five isolates, all Citrobacter sp. (Enterobacteriaceae). This study identifies new cellulose degrading microorganisms from the larval gut of L. mansueta. The significance of identifying these strains lies in possible application in cellulose degradation.  相似文献
胆汁酸功能及其与肠道细菌相互关系   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
胆汁酸具有多种重要生理功能. 近年研究发现,胆汁酸可作为信号分子与褐色脂肪细胞表面受体TGR5结合,可激活法尼酯衍生物X受体(nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor, FXR)的表达. 通过激活这些不同的信号传导途径,胆汁酸可以分别起到调节体内能量代谢平衡、控制肥胖以及抑制肠道细菌过度增殖的作用. 胆汁酸与人及动物肠道细菌具有复杂的相互关系:肠道细菌对于胆汁酸的转化很重要,除了在胆汁酸的转化中发挥重要作用外,肠道微生物菌群还可以十分有效地水解已被胆汁酸清除的生物体内结合寄生物或异源物质,促进这些物质的活化或肠肝循环. 宿主拥有一些抑制细菌过度增殖的机制,这些机制包括快速转运以及利用抗菌肽、蛋白水解肽和胆汁酸等进行抑菌;而有些肠道细菌在进化中形成一些抗性机制可避免胆汁酸胁迫. 本文主要就胆汁酸控制肥胖以及抑制细菌过度增殖的机制和胆汁酸与肠道细菌相互关系进行了综述.  相似文献
【目的】Toll信号通路是昆虫天然免疫系统的重要组分,其中Toll受体在激活昆虫病原菌侵染免疫应答方面发挥了关键作用。本研究旨在探究斯氏按蚊Anopheles stephensi Toll受体基因在抵抗微生物侵染和维持肠道菌群稳态过程中的功能。【方法】根据冈比亚按蚊Anopheles gambiae Toll受体家族的蛋白氨基酸序列,通过序列同源比对鉴定斯氏按蚊中相应的Toll受体基因;运用荧光定量PCR检测Toll受体基因在未感染病原菌的斯氏按蚊脂肪体中的相对表达量,以及在真菌球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana和革兰氏阴性细菌胡萝卜软腐欧文氏菌Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora侵染斯氏按蚊过程中的表达变化;最后,在斯氏按蚊雌成蚊胸部显微注射AsToll1A和AsToll5A的双链RNA进行RNA干扰后,检测RNAi处理的斯氏按蚊受真菌侵染后的存活率、肠道细菌含量变化以及抗菌肽基因表达变化。【结果】在斯氏按蚊中共鉴定到8个Toll受体基因,即AsToll1A,AsToll5A,AsToll6,AsToll7,AsToll8,AsToll9,AsToll10和AsToll11。通过荧光定量PCR检测发现,未感染病原菌的斯氏按蚊雌成蚊脂肪体中AsToll5A表达量最高,AsToll1A表达量次之,其余Toll受体基因表达量极低。在球孢白僵菌和胡萝卜软腐欧文氏菌侵染过程中,与对照(注射PBS)比较,AsToll1A和AsToll5A在斯氏按蚊中的表达量显著升高,其余Toll受体基因表达变化不显著或降低。RNA干扰结果表明,AsToll1A或AsToll5A的表达受到抑制后,斯氏按蚊对球孢白僵菌的抵抗能力显著降低,肠道细菌总量与对照(dsGFP)比较显著增多。而且,抑制AsToll1A后抗菌肽基因DEF1和GAM1的表达受到显著抑制;抑制AsToll5A后仅有GAM1表达量下调。【结论】斯氏按蚊Toll受体在结构和功能上具有高度的保守性,其中AsToll1A和AsToll5A能响应病原真菌和革兰氏阴性细菌侵染并且影响肠道菌稳态。  相似文献
取食不同食物对小菜蛾幼虫肠道细菌多样性的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
【目的】植食性昆虫肠道细菌的组成与其食物密切相关。本研究旨在探究小菜蛾Plutella xylostella幼虫肠道细菌多样性与其取食食物之间的关系以及它们之间相互适应的过程。【方法】本研究选取小菜蛾人工饲料品系(S)及其转寄主到结球甘蓝Brassica oleracea var.capitata、结球白菜Brassica rapa subsp.pekinensis和花椰菜Brassica olerocea var.botrytis饲养后第1代(分别为G1C, G1CC和G1WC)和第3代(分别为G3C, G3CC和G3WC)的4龄幼虫,提取小菜蛾肠道细菌基因组DNA,利用Illumina MiSeq二代高通量测序技术,分析其肠道细菌多样性和丰度。【结果】α多样性指数分析发现,取食不同食物的小菜蛾4龄幼虫肠道细菌多样性高低顺序为G1WCG1CCSG1C。在菌群组成上,以人工饲料为食的S样品肠道细菌主要由厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)组成,转寄主植物后的G1C, G1CC和G1WC肠道中厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)相对丰度显著下降,G1C和G1CC小菜蛾肠道中变形菌门(Proteobacteria)相对丰度显著上升成为优势菌群,G1WC肠道中拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)成为优势菌群。在寄主植物上连续饲养3代后,与第1代相比,小菜蛾肠道细菌α多样性指数没有显著性改变,但在结球甘蓝和结球白菜上小菜蛾肠道菌群结构却发生了变化,相比G1C,G3C肠道中芽孢杆菌目(Bacillales)的相对丰度显著下降;相比G1CC, G3CC肠道中放线菌门(Proteobacteria)、芽单胞菌门(Gemmatimonadetes)和硝化螺旋菌门(Nitrospirae)的相对丰度均显著上升。【结论】取食人工饲料和不同寄主植物的小菜蛾幼虫肠道细菌多样性和群落构成存在显著差异,寄主植物对小菜蛾肠道微生物的结构组成具有重要的影响,且小菜蛾肠道微生物对寄主植物可能存在一个长期适应的过程。本研究为进一步探讨影响小菜蛾肠道细菌变化的因素,以及后续研究肠道细菌与寄主植物之间的互作奠定了良好的基础。  相似文献
The termite is a good model of symbiosis between microbes and hosts and possesses an effective cellulose digestive system. Oxygen-tolerant bacteria, such as Dyella sp., Chryseobacterium sp., and Bacillus sp., were isolated from Reticulitermes speratus gut. Notably, the endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EG) activity of all 16 strains of isolated bacteria was low. Due to the combined activity of EG from the termites and their symbiotic protozoa, the bacteria might not be compelled to express EG. This observation demonstrates how well intestinal bacteria have assimilated themselves into the efficient cellulose digestive systems of termites.  相似文献
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