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1.
Spatial autocorrelation in biology 1. Methodology   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Spatial autocorrelation analysis tests whether the observed value of a nominal, ordinal, or interval variable at one locality is independent of values of the variable at neighbouring localities. The computation of autocorrelation coefficients for nominal, ordinal, and for interval data is illustrated, together with appropriate significance tests. The method is extended to include the computation of correlograms for spatial autocorrelation. These show the autocorrelation coefficient as a function of distance between pairs of localities being considered, and summarize the patterns of geographic variation exhibited by the response surface of any given variable.
Autocorrelation analysis is applied to microgeographic variation of allozyme frequencies in the snail Helix aspersa. Differences in variational patterns in two city blocks are interpreted.
The inferences that can be drawn from correlograms are discussed and illustrated with the aid of some artificially generated patterns. Computational formulae, expected values and standard errors are furnished in two appendices.  相似文献
2.
现代中国人颅骨测量特征及其地区性差异的初步研究   总被引:21,自引:10,他引:11  
刘武  杨茂有 《人类学学报》1991,10(2):96-106
3.
中国林蛙的生殖量特征及其地理变化   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
卢欣 《生态学报》1994,14(2):209-214
标本采自山西省境内的8个地点。结果表明1研究区域内性成熟雌蛙平均体长范围是34.5-52.3mm,高山森林带种群明显偏高;研究种群雌蛙的体长显著低于东北居群。2平均生殖量的范围是422.4-840.9枚,个体的最低,最高值分别为38和1978枚,平均相对生殖量的范围是10.7-18.0,个体的最低,最高值各为1.3和34.4。与东北居群相比,生殖量的变异幅度较高。3除高山森林带外,其余调查点的生殖  相似文献
4.
天然红松种群形态特征地理变异的研究   总被引:20,自引:1,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
在我国红松天然分布区内,根据纬度和海拔的差异,选取了凉水、小北湖和长白山3个地区具有典型代表性下的天然红松林,进行了形态结构的观测分析。分单株采样,测量了一级枝针叶的长度,球果长度、宽度、每球果含种子数目,种子的重量,树皮的形态。结果表明:红松平均针叶长度在我国分布区风呈现中间长、南北短的趋势。种群内针叶的变异幅度凉山地区最大(0.1486),长白山地我最小(0.1056);种群间针叶长度变异较大  相似文献
5.
Spatial autocorrelation analysis tests whether the observed value of a variable at one locality is significantly dependent on values of the variable at neighbouring localities. The method was extended by us in an earlier paper to include the computation of correlograms for spatial autocorrelation. These show the autocorrelation coefficient as a function of distance between pairs of localities, and summarize the patterns of geographic variation exhibited by the response surface of any given variable. Identical variation patterns lead to identical correlograms, but different patterns may or may not yield different correlograms. Similarity in the correlograms of different variation patterns suggests similarity in the generating mechanism of the pattern.
The inferences that can be drawn from correlograms are discussed and illustrated. Examination and analysis of variation patterns of several characters or gene frequencies for one population, or of several populations in different places or at different times, permit some conclusions about the nature of the populational processes generating the observed patterns.
Autocorrelation analysis is applied to four biological situations differing in the nature of the data (interval or nominal), in the type of grid connecting the localities (regular or irregular), and the field of application (evolution or ecology). The examples comprise genotypes of individual mice, blood group frequencies in humans, gene frequency variation in a perennial herb, and the distribution of species of trees. The implications of our findings are discussed.  相似文献
6.
On the validity of Bergmann's rule   总被引:15,自引:4,他引:11  
7.
中国水域江豚外形的地理变异和江豚的三亚种   总被引:15,自引:5,他引:10  
8.
Genetic diversity and conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
Biodiversity refers to variation within the living world, while genetic diversity represents the heritable variation within and between populations of organisms, and in the context of this paper, among plant species. This pool of genetic variation within an inter-mating population is the basis for selection as well as for plant improvement. Thus, conservation of this plant genetic diversity is essential for present and future human well-being. During recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the importance of adopting a holistic view of biodiversity, including agricultural biodiversity, conservation for sustainable utilization and development. These principles have been enshrined in the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Global Plan of Action of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The emphasis is now to understand the distribution and extent of genetic diversity available to humans in plant species, so that the genetic diversity can be safely conserved and efficiently used. It is generally recognized that plant genetic diversity changes in time and space. The extent and distribution of genetic diversity in a plant species depends on its evolution and breeding system, ecological and geographical factors, past bottlenecks, and often by many human factors. Much of the large amount of diversity of a species may be found within individual populations, or partitioned among a number of different populations.A better understanding of genetic diversity and its distribution is essential for its conservation and use. It will help us in determining what to conserve as well as where to conserve, and will improve our understanding of the taxonomy and origin and evolution of plant species of interest. Knowledge of both these topics is essential for collecting and use of any plant species and its wild relatives. In order to mange conserved germplasm better, there is also a need to understand the genetic diversity that is present in collections. This will help us to rationalize collections and develop and adopt better protocols for regeneration of germplasm seed. Through improved characterization and development of core collections based on genetic diversity information, it will be possible to exploit the available resources in more valuable ways.  相似文献
9.
鸟类鸣声结构地理变异及其分类学意义   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12  
鸟声作为鸟类重要的生物学特征,是鸟类行为与声学研究相互交叉,相互渗透的新的边缘学科,近年来录音及声谱分析技术的发展使得鸟声研究已渗透到鸟类的各个研究领域。鸟类鸣声结构的地理变异,有时也称“鸟声方言”,不仅具有一定的种群稳定性而且具有个体性。它不仅与种群的遗传有关,而且与环境的异质性以及鸣声学习有关;鸣声方言可部分地阻碍种群的扩散,阻碍种群的基因漂移,从而影响到种群的基因库,长时间的地理隔离和生类学  相似文献
10.
中国石龙子雌体繁殖特征和卵孵化的地理变异   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
浙江丽水和广东韶关中国石龙子均年产单窝卵,窝卵数,窝卵重和卵重均与雌体SVL呈正相关,雌体头部形态,繁殖特征,产卵起始时间和孵孵化的热依赖性等有显著的地理变异;韶关石龙子产卵起始时间为5月中旬,比丽水经子约早两周,韶关石龙子窝卵数较大,卵较小,窝卵重与丽水石龙子无显著差异。韶关石龙子特定SVL的窝卵数比丽水石龙子多2.8枚卵,中国经子卵数量和大小之间有种群间权衡,无种数内权衡,同一种群内卵数量与卵大小无关,孵化温度影响石龙子孵出幼体的一些特征,24℃孵出细幼体比32℃孵出幼体大,躯干发育好,剩余卵黄少,韶关24℃孵出幼体的体重,躯干干重小于丽水幼体,韶关32℃孵出幼体的SVL小于丽水幼体,剩余卵黄大于丽水幼体,表明适宜卵孵化温度范围有地理变异。丽水石龙子卵对极端高温和低温的耐受性较强,适宜卵孵化温度范围较宽。  相似文献
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