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1.
Testicular descent as a prerequisite for the production of mature spermatozoa and normal external genitalia morphogenesis, and therefore facilitating copulation and internal fertilization, are essential developmental steps in reproduction of vertebrate species. Cryptorchidism, the failure of testis descent, and feminization of external genitalia in the male, usually in the form of hypospadias, in which the opening of the urethra occurs along the ventral aspect of the penis, are the most frequent pediatric complications. Thus, elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of testis descent and the formation of external genitalia merits a special focus. Natural and transgenic rodent models have demonstrated both morphogenic processes to be under the control of a plethora of genetic factors with complex time-, space-, and dose-restricted expression pattern. The review elucidates the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of testis descent and the formation of external genitalia and, wherever possible, assesses the differences between these rodent animal models and other mammalian species, including human.  相似文献
2.
Adaptation versus pleiotropy: why do males harm their mates?   总被引:8,自引:4,他引:4  
Recent studies have documented male traits that cause physicalharm to their mates during copulation. Such harm has been suggestedto either (1) arise as a negative pleiotropic side effect ofadaptations that give males a reproductive advantage in anothercontext or (2) represent a male adaptation per se. In otherwords, male traits that cause harm to their mates may becomeestablished despite the fact that they cause harm or becausethey do so. A critical assumption of the latter hypotheses isthat females respond to infliction of harm in a manner thatis beneficial to their mates: by reducing their propensity toremate and/or by elevating their current reproductive rate.In the present study, we test this assumption by experimentallyinflicting various forms of harm to females immediately aftercopulation in three different insect species. We reveal thatfemales do not delay remating or increase their reproductiverate after being harmed but, on the contrary, remate soonerand lay fewer eggs in some cases. We conclude that selectionfor infliction of harm to females per se is unlikely. Instead,available empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that harmfulmale traits arise as negative pleiotropic side effects of adaptationsthat yield other selective advantages to males during reproductivecompetition.  相似文献
3.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of development of the external genitalia   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
The limb and external genitalia are appendages of the body wall. Development of these structures differs fundamentally in that masculine development of the external genitalia is androgen dependent, whereas development of the limb is not. Despite this fundamental difference in developmental regulation, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play key roles in the development of both structures, and similar regulatory molecules are utilized as mediators of morphogenetic cell-cell interactions during development of both the limb and external genitalia. Given the relatively high incidence of hypospadias, a malformation of penile development, it is appropriate and timely to review the morphological, endocrine, and molecular mechanisms of development of the genital tubercle (GT), the precursor of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Morphological observations comparing development of the GT in humans and mouse emphasize the validity of the mouse as an animal model of GT development and validate the results of experimental studies. Accordingly, the use of mutant mice provides important insights into the roles of specific regulatory molecules in development of the external genitalia. While our current understanding of the morphological and molecular mechanisms of mammalian external genitalia development is still rudimentary, this review summarizes the current state of our knowledge and whenever possible draws from the rich experimental embryology literature on other relevant organs such as the developing limb. Future research on the hormonal and molecular mechanisms of GT development may yield strategies to prevent or reduce the incidence of hypospadias and to elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of GT morphogenesis, especially in relation to common organogenetic pathways utilized in other organ systems.  相似文献
4.
狭胸天牛类雄性外生殖嚣分类研究——附一新种   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
 该文就狭胸天牛类3属6种雄性外生殖器的形态结构,比较研究其系统发育及其归属,并记录太谷芫天牛Mantitheus tazguensts sp. nov.一新种和重新描述细点音天牛的雄性外生殖器。狭胸天牛类属较原始的类群,祖征为中茎突中央加厚,边缘极薄;阳基侧突基部还保留着一条横裂。狭胸天牛属与音天牛属和芫天牛属关系较密切,应为姊妹群,狭胸天牛属较始,其衍征为中茎突较长的分开,内囊具基骨片、骨化细长管和大小较一致骨化微刺。音天牛属和芫天牛属为姊妹群,芫天牛较原始,音天牛较进化,其衍征为阳基侧突背面因基部裂缝消失而完全合并,骨化细长管较细;外部形态表现为触角较短,较圆;中胸发音器中央无缝;而芫天牛内囊基骨片明显易见。  相似文献
5.
We present the first cladistic analysis focused at the tribal and subfamily level of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae. The data matrix of 82 characters scored for 57 arancid genera of 6 subfamilies and 19 tribes (and 13 genera from 8 outgroup families) resulted in 16 slightly different, most parsimonious trees. Successive weighting corroborated 62 of the 66 informative nodes on these cladograms; one is recommended as the 'working' araneid phylogcny. The sister group of Araneidae is all other Araneoidea. Araneidae comprises two major clades: the subfamily Araneinae, and the 'argiopoid' clade, which includes all other subfamilies and most tribes (((Gasteracanthinae, Caerostreae), (((Micratheninae, Xylcthreae), Eruyosaccus ), (Eurycorminae, Arciinae)), Cyrlarachninae), ((Argiopinae, Cyrtophorinae), Arachnureae)). Cyrtarachneae and Mastophoreae are united in a new subfamily, Cyr-tarachninae. The spiny orb-weavers alone (Gasteracanthinae and Micratheninae) are not monophyletic. The mimetid subfamily Arciinae and the 'tetragnathid' genus Zygiella are araneids, but .Nephila (and other tetragnathids) are not. On the preferred tree, web decorations (stabilimenta) evolved 9 times within 15 genera, and were lost once. The use of silk to subdue prey evolved once in cribellate and four times in ecribillate orb weavers. Sexual size dimorphism evolved once in nephilines, twice in araneids, and reverted to monomorphism five times. Evolution in other genitalic and somatic characters is also assessed; behavioral and spinneret features arc most consistent (male genitalia, leg and prosomal features least consistent) on the phylogeny.  相似文献
6.
External genital development begins with formation of paired genital swellings, which develop into the genital tubercle. Proximodistal outgrowth and axial patterning of the genital tubercle are coordinated to give rise to the penis or clitoris. The genital tubercle consists of lateral plate mesoderm, surface ectoderm, and endodermal urethral epithelium derived from the urogenital sinus. We have investigated the molecular control of external genital development in the mouse embryo. Previous work has shown that the genital tubercle has polarizing activity, but the precise location of this activity within the tubercle is unknown. We reasoned that if the tubercle itself is patterned by a specialized signaling region, then polarizing activity may be restricted to a subset of cells. Transplantation of urethral epithelium, but not genital mesenchyme, to chick limbs results in mirror-image duplication of the digits. Moreover, when grafted to chick limbs, the urethral plate orchestrates morphogenetic movements normally associated with external genital development. Signaling activity is therefore restricted to urethral plate cells. Before and during normal genital tubercle outgrowth, urethral plate epithelium expresses Sonic hedgehog (Shh). In mice with a targeted deletion of Shh, external genitalia are absent. Genital swellings are initiated, but outgrowth is not maintained. In the absence of Shh signaling, Fgf8, Bmp2, Bmp4, Fgf10, and Wnt5a are downregulated, and apoptosis is enhanced in the genitalia. These results identify the urethral epithelium as a signaling center of the genital tubercle, and demonstrate that Shh from the urethral epithelium is required for outgrowth, patterning, and cell survival in the developing external genitalia.  相似文献
7.
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an mRNA surveillance pathway which ensures the rapid degradation of mRNAs containing premature translation termination codons (PTCs or nonsense codons), thereby preventing the accumulation of truncated and potentially harmful proteins. In this way, the NMD pathway contributes to suppressing or exacerbating the clinical manifestations of specific human genetic disorders. Studies in model organisms have led to the identification of the effectors of the NMD pathway, and illuminated the mechanisms by which premature stops are discriminated from natural stops, so that only the former trigger rapid mRNA degradation. These studies are providing important insights that will aid the development of new treatments for at least some human genetic diseases.  相似文献
8.
Although the frequently large variance in relative male fertilizationsuccess when females are mated by more than 1 male has beenappreciated for some time, the factors that influence relativepaternity are still poorly understood. Recently, experimentalevidence that morphology of male genitalia influences fertilizationsuccess has been documented in 2 water striders, a dung beetle,and a leaf beetle. We explored the role of male genital morphologyin postcopulatory sexual selection in the oriental beetle. Wemated females to 2 males in succession and assessed relativepaternity by the sterile male technique. Morphology of the malegenitalia was found to strongly influence relative paternitybut only for the first male to mate. Male body size influencedrelative fertilization success as well, but again, only forthe first male; surprisingly, smaller males achieved higherpaternity when mating first. We also found suggestive evidencethat copula duration of both the first and second male to mateinfluenced paternity. Other factors, including female size anddegree of asymmetry of hind tibiae length of males had no effecton relative fertilization success. Our results for the orientalbeetle are novel among sperm precedence studies for 2 reasons:1) traits of the first male appear to be more important in influencingpaternity than those of the second, and 2) smaller, not larger,males achieved greater relative paternity. Our results alsocontribute to the growing body of empirical evidence in supportof the hypothesis that male genitalia evolve by postcopulatorysexual selection.  相似文献
9.
对扁蜡蝉科(半翅目,蜡蝉总科)中鳖扁蜡蝉Cixiopsis punctatus Matsumura和娇弱鳎扁蜡蝉Tambinia debilis St(a)l的雌性生殖器进行了详细描述,绘制特征图并指明各部分的结构名称.结果表明前者生殖管道属于单开口类型,而后者是双开口类型.雌性生殖器特征可为分类学和系统发育分析提供更多的参考信息.  相似文献
10.
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