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1.
基于醇溶蛋白的20份小麦种质遗传完整性分析   总被引:13,自引:3,他引:10  
采用醇溶蛋白电泳技术对同一品种不同繁殖年份的20份小麦种质进行遗传完整性分析。结果表明:供试种质中有10份具有一种醇溶蛋白谱带带型的同质性种质;另外10份具有2~4种醇溶蛋白谱带带型的异质性种质,其中6份为地方品种。表明地方品种具有较高的遗传多样性。在10份异质性种质中,两个繁殖年份种质之间的醇溶蛋白带型频率变化差异不显著的有5份,其第一繁殖年份的种质发芽率均高于75%,而另外5份存在显著差异的种质,第一年份的发芽率都低于66%。进一步分析表明,这10份异质性种质在两个繁殖年份之间,其发芽率差值与带型频率差值之间呈极显著正相关,相关系数为0.8665。上速结果表明,小麦更新时较高的发芽率是维持异质性种质遗传完整性的关键因素。  相似文献
2.
Reciprocal hybrid formation of Spartina in San Francisco Bay   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Diversity in the tRNALEU1 intron of the chloroplast genome of Spartina was used to study hybridization of native California cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, with S. alterniflora, introduced to San Francisco Bay approximately 25 years ago. We sequenced 544 bases of the tRNALEU1 intron and found three polymorphic sites, a pyrimidine transition at site 126 and transversions at sites 382 and 430. Spartina from outside of San Francisco Bay, where hybridization between these species is impossible, gave cpDNA genotypes of the parental species. S. foliosa had a single chloroplast haplotype, CCT, and this was unique to California cordgrass. S. alterniflora from the native range along the Atlantic coast of North America had three chloroplast haplotypes, CAT, TAA, and TAT. Hybrids were discriminated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) phenotypes developed in a previous study. We found one hybrid that contained a cpDNA haplotype unknown in either parental species (TCT). The most significant finding was that hybridization proceeds in both directions, assuming maternal inheritance of cpDNA; 26 of the 36 hybrid Spartina plants from San Francisco Bay contained the S. foliosa haplotype, nine contained haplotypes of the invading S. alterniflora, and one had the cpDNA of unknown origin. Furthermore, cpDNA of both parental species was distributed throughout the broad range of RAPD phenotypes, suggesting ongoing contributions to the hybrid swarm from both. The preponderance of S. foliosa cpDNA has entered the hybrid swarm indirectly, we propose, from F1s that backcross to S. foliosa. Flowering of the native precedes by several weeks that of the invading species, with little overlap between the two. Thus, F1 hybrids would be rare and sired by the last S. foliosa pollen upon the first S. alterniflora stigmas. The native species produces little pollen and this has low viability. An intermediate flowering time of hybrids as well as pollen that is more vigourous and abundant than that of the native species would predispose F1s to high fitness in a vast sea of native ovules. Thus, spread of hybrids to other S. foliosa marshes could be an even greater threat to the native species than introductions of alien S. alterniflora.  相似文献
3.
AFLP技术运用于小麦种子超干燥保存遗传完整性的初探   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
小麦种子被干燥和超干燥至9.0%,8.0%,7.0%,6.0%,5.0%,4.0%后,密封包装于江西南昌常温保存。保存五年后,发芽结果表明,小麦种子于亚热带地区常温保存,必须先经过干燥密封包装。种子最适含水量介于7.0%~9.0%之间。不同品种阃有差异。种子经发芽生长至三叶一心期,取幼苗(茎与叶),用AFLP分子技术对其单株及20株的混合样品进行遗传稳定性鉴定。结果表明,每对引物的AFLP图谱谱带丰富,不同引物的清晰带有26至52条,不同品种间差异带在3至6条。同一品种不同的含水量之间AFLP图谱谱带整齐划一,未见明显差异。同一含水量不同混合样品或单株样品间也未见差异,表明小麦种子经干燥、超干燥后于亚热带地区(江西南昌)常温保存五年后。在AFLP分子水平上未见遗传变异。同时本研究也为贮藏种子的遗传完整性研究提供了一个新的思路。  相似文献
4.
选取大豆品种中黄18为试验材料,利用60对SSR核心引物对经过不同老化时间处理的群体及其繁殖后代群体进行遗传完整性分析。经过老化处理的群体及其繁殖子代群体与未经老化处理的对照群体相比,等位基因频率、有效等位基因数没有显著差异,结果表明经过老化处理种子及其繁殖子代群体的等位基因频率变化不大。未经老化处理、发芽率为98%的对照群体(G0-1)与其繁殖一代、繁殖二代群体相比,等位变异数、遗传多样性指数、香农指数和稀有等位基因数没有显著差异,且遗传一致度相对较高;而经过老化处理、发芽率低于85%的群体(G0-3和G0-4)及其后代繁殖群体与对照群体相比,等住变异数、遗传多样性指数、香农指数和稀有等位基因数显著或极显著降低,且遗传一致度相对较低。因此,种子老化较繁殖世代对大豆种质群体的遗传结构影响更大。  相似文献
5.
Novel integrative genomics strategies to identify genes for complex traits   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Forward genetics is a common approach to dissecting complex traits like common human diseases. The ultimate aim of this approach was the identification of genes that are causal for disease or other phenotypes of interest. However, the forward genetics approach is by definition restricted to the identification of genes that have incurred mutations over the course of evolution or that incurred mutations as a result of chemical mutagenesis, and that as a result lead to disease or to variations in other phenotypes of interest. Genes that harbour no such mutations, but that play key roles in parts of the biological network that lead to disease, are systematically missed by this class of approaches. Recently, a class of novel integrative genomics approaches has been devised to elucidate the complexity of common human diseases by intersecting genotypic, molecular profiling, and clinical data in segregating populations. These novel approaches take a more holistic view of biological systems and leverage the vast network of gene–gene interactions, in combination with DNA variation data, to establish causal relationships among molecular profiling traits and Fbetween molecular profiling and disease (or other classic phenotypes). A number of novel genes for disease phenotypes have been identified as a result of these approaches, highlighting the utility of integrating orthogonal sources of data to get at the underlying causes of disease.  相似文献
6.
人类发育与遗传学整合课程教学体会   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
人类发育与遗传学整合课程体系的建立是课程改革的重要部分。通过整合教学内容, 稳定教学队伍、开展教材建设、实施PBL(Problem-based learning)教学模式等进一步完善了整合课程体系, 确立了整合+PBL教学模式, 并通过教学实践证明切实可行, 在提高教学效果、培养学生能力上发挥一定的作用。  相似文献
7.
繁殖群体量及隔离对蚕豆种质遗传完整性的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为研究繁殖群体量和隔离方式对常异花授粉作物蚕豆种质繁殖更新的影响,以9份蚕豆地方种质为对象,以国家库保存的原种为对照群体,采用AFLP分子标记方法,对比了50株和20株群体量及开放无隔离群体和网棚隔离群体更新后代的遗传完整性差异。结果表明:与对照群体相比,50株和20株群体的多态性位点数、多态位点百分率、每位点有效等位基因数、香农指数、遗传多样性指数均出现不同程度下降,但下降幅度20株大于50株群体;遗传相似性和UPGMA聚类分析表明50株群体与对照群体的遗传相似性高于20株群体;网棚隔离可降低群体间串粉与花粉污染,但其遗传完整性却较开放无隔离群体低。  相似文献
8.
微生物遗传学综合性实验促进了学生熟练掌握基本实验技能,强化对实验课程意义的认识,训练学生科学思维能力,培养科学严谨的治学作风,有助于形成团结互助精神,对提高学生的综合素质起到了良好的作用。  相似文献
9.
Summary RAPD analysis was performed among eight rice somaclonal families known to vary for specific characters and four somaclonal families which were phenotypically normal. The parental cultivar,indica rice cv. FR13A, was found to be homogeneous and homozygous at all but one of the 45 RAPD loci. Polymorphisms were found at 28 of the 45 bands among the somaclonal families, including both loss of parental bands, and the appearance of novel non-parental bands. Segregation data revealed both heterozygous and homozygous mutation events, with recessive mutations more prevalent than dominant. All somaclonal families differed significantly from the parental material, indicating that genomic alterations occurred in all families regardless of phenotype. None of the variant families could be regarded as isogenic lines of FR13A at the DNA level. However, some of the DNA level variation may be in highly repeated sequences with no phenotypic effects. The implications for somaclonal breeding and genetic engineering programs are discussed.  相似文献
10.
Summary The importance of constraints, defined as factors that retard or prevent a population from reaching its immediate adaptive peak on an ecological time scale is analysed. This is done by means of simple quantitative genetic models, which if anything underestimate the importance of constraints. The results show that even in the simplest case the response to selection will not generally be in the same direction as the selection vector, i.e. the direction to the nearest optimum. Adding complexity identifies cases where selection may lead the population in suboptimal directions. It is concluded that information about univariate genetic variances is not sufficient to predict evolutionary responses and may even be misleading. However, genetic covariances are not always acting as constraints, but can under certain circumstances promote evolution towards the nearest optimum. This can be understood by a spectral decomposition of the genetic variance—covariance matrix, where it is shown that the eigenvector associated with the largest amount of variance will to various degrees determine the outcome of selection. A literature survey of the pattern of character covariation in morphological characters in natural populations shows a wide variety of correlation patterns, but quite often shows a high level of covariance between traits. This suggests that constraints to short-term evolution may be more common than generally appreciated.  相似文献
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