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1.
河岸植被特征及其在生态系统和景观中的作用   总被引:110,自引:14,他引:96  
河溪生态系统、河岸植被、河溪连续系等基本概念、理论和应用,是生态学科中的重要组成部分.本文主要基于北美地区近30年来关于河溪生态系统研究,对河溪生态系统研究的历史、理论、基本概念及应用,特别是对河岸植被在河溪生态系统及景观中的结构、功能以及资源经营管理现状进行概括和总结.  相似文献
2.
河岸带研究及其退化生态系统的恢复与重建   总被引:93,自引:9,他引:84       下载免费PDF全文
河岸带是指水陆交界处的两边,直至河水影响消失为止的地带。河岸带是湿地的重要组成部分,在流域生态系统中发挥着重要的作用,具有较大的生态、社会、经济和旅游价值。河岸带研究以生态学、水文学和地貌学炎基础,涉及多种学科和技术方法。由于自然和人为因素的影响,退化河岸带的生态恢复与重建较为复杂,通过安徽潜山县潜水退化河岸带滩地近6a的生态恢复与重建试验,研究结果表明:恢复与重建后的河岸带滩地生态系统的生物多样性和稳定性增加;土训结构和养分条件得到改善,其中,小于0.002mm的粘粒含量的平均值由恢复前的4.53%,上升到恢复后的11.71%,土壤容重由恢复前的1.455g/cm^2下降到恢复后的1.2g/cm^2,土壤有机质的平均值由恢复前的1.25g/kg上升到恢复后的9.44g/kg;河滩地泥沙淤积量增加;植物抗风浪作用增强,有效地保护了河岸,改善了河岸带地区的小气候。河岸带研究在我国起步较晚,因此,今后应加强河岸带的管理和对退化河岸带生态系统的恢复与重建工作,使河岸带生态系统可持续地为人类提供丰富多样的生产、生活和观光旅游产品。  相似文献
3.
香溪河流域河岸带植物群落物种丰富度格局   总被引:38,自引:5,他引:33       下载免费PDF全文
通过不同海拔高度的样带调查来研究香溪河流域河岸植物群落物种丰富度格局,并探讨河岸带中生物多样性维持的生态学机制。结果表明:河岸植物群落总的物种丰富度、乔木层物种丰富度和草本层物种丰富度沿海拔梯度均表现出相似的格局特征,利用抛物线方程进行拟合,物种丰富度与海拔之间有显著的相关性。灌木层物种丰富度和藤本植物物种丰富度格局特征不明显,且物种丰富度与坡度相关,在流域尺度上,海拔对物种丰富度有着重要的控制作用;在局部尺度上,季节性洪水干扰导致的空间异质性和小地形对群落的生物多样性有着重要的影响,研究结果支在于总的物种多样性在原始河流的中间河段将达到最大值的预测。  相似文献
4.
At the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, a long-term effort is under way to study responses in ecosystem biogeochemistry to chronic inputs of N in atmospheric deposition in the region. Since 1988, experimental additions of NH4NO3 (0, 5 and 15 g N m–2 yr–1) have been made in two forest stands:Pinus resinosa (red pine) and mixed hardwood. In the seventh year of the study, we measured solute concentrations and estimated solute fluxes in throughfall and at two soil depths, beneath the forest floors (Oa) and beneath the B horizons.Beneath the Oa, concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic C and N (DOC and DON) were higher in the coniferous stand than in the hardwood stand. The mineral soil exerted a strong homogenizing effect on concentrations beneath the B horizons. In reference plots (no N additions), DON composed 56% (pine) and 67% (hardwood) of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) transported downward from the forest floor to the mineral soil, and 98% of the TDN exported from the solums. Under N amendments, fluxes of DON from the forest floor correlated positively with rates of N addition, but fluxes of inorganic N from the Oa exceeded those of DON. Export of DON from the solums appeared unaffected by 7 years of N amendments, but as in the Oa, DON composed smaller fractions of TDN exports under N amendments. DOC fluxes were not strongly related to N amendment rates, but ratios of DOC:DON often decreased.The hardwood forest floor exhibited a much stronger sink for inorganic N than did the pine forest floor, making the inputs of dissolved N to mineral soil much greater in the pine stand. Under the high-N treatment, exports of inorganic N from the solum of the pine stand were increased >500-fold over reference (5.2 vs. 0.01 g N m–2 yr–1), consistent with other manifestations of nitrogen saturation. Exports of N from the solum in the pine forest decreased in the order NO3-N> NH4-N> DON, with exports of inorganic N 14-fold higher than exports of DON. In the hardwood forest, in contrast, increased sinks for inorganic N under N amendments resulted in exports of inorganic N that remained lower than DON exports in N-amended plots as well as the reference plot.  相似文献
5.
A mass balance procedure was used to determine rates of nitrate depletion in the riparian zone and stream channel of a small New Zealand headwater stream. In all 12 surveys the majority of nitrate loss (56–100%) occurred in riparian organic soils, despite these soils occupying only 12% of the stream's border. This disproportionate role of the organic soils in depleting nitrate was due to two factors. Firstly, they were located at the base of hollows and consequently a disproportionately high percentage (37–81%) of the groundwater flowed through them in its passage to the stream. Secondly, they were anoxic and high in both denitrifying enzyme concentration and available carbon. Direct estimates ofin situ denitrification rate for organic soils near the upslope edge (338 mg N m–2 h–1) were much higher than average values estimated for the organic soils as a whole (0.3–2.1 mg N m–2 h–1) and suggested that areas of these soils were limited in their denitrification activity by the supply of nitrate. The capacity of these soils to regulate nitrate flux was therefore under-utilized. The majority of stream channel nitrate depletion was apparently due to plant uptake, with estimates of thein situ denitrification rate of stream sediments being less than 15% of the stream channel nitrate depletion rate estimated by mass balance.This study has shown that catchment hydrology can interact in a variety of ways with the biological processes responsible for nitrate depletion in riparian and stream ecosystems thereby having a strong influence on nitrate flux. This reinforces the view that those seeking to understand the functioning of these ecosystems need to consider hydrological phenomena.  相似文献
6.
格氏栲天然林与人工林枯枝落叶层碳库及养分库   总被引:28,自引:4,他引:24       下载免费PDF全文
通过对福建三明格氏栲天然林及在其采伐迹地上营造的 33年生格氏栲人工林和杉木人工林枯枝落叶层现存量与季节动态、C库及养分库的研究表明 ,格氏栲天然林、格氏栲人工林和杉木人工林枯枝落叶层现存量分别为 8.99t· hm- 2 、7.5 6t· hm- 2 和 4 .81t· hm- 2 ;枯枝落叶层中叶占现存量的比例分别为 6 4 .96 %、6 1.38%和 38.0 5 % ,枝占比例分别为 31.5 9%、37.83%和 4 2 .6 2 %。格氏栲天然林与人工林枯枝落叶层现存量最大值均出现在春季 ,而杉木人工林枯枝落叶层现存量最大值出现在夏季。格氏栲天然林枯枝落叶层 C贮量为 4 .0 2 t· hm- 2 ,分别是格氏栲人工林和杉木人工林的 1.2 2倍和 1.77倍 ;格氏栲天然林和人工林枯枝落叶层 C库与杉木人工林的差异均达到显著水平 (P<0 .0 5 )。格氏栲天然林、格氏栲人工林和杉木人工林枯枝落叶层养分贮量分别为 138.4 2 kg· hm- 2 、113.5 6 kg· hm- 2 和 72 .39kg· hm- 2 ;除 Mg外 ,格氏栲天然林枯枝落叶层中各种养分贮量均最高。与人工林相比 ,天然林枯枝落叶层现存量、C和养分贮量均最大。枯枝落叶层对林地长期生产力维持具有重要作用。  相似文献
7.
长江三峡地区干流河岸植物群落的初步研究   总被引:20,自引:2,他引:18  
以长江三峡干流河岸植物群落为研究对象,对群落的物种组成、物种多样性进行了分析,并利用TWINSPAN方法对植物群落进行高等级式划分。结果表明:河岸植物区系组成较为复杂,以温带成分为主,有着较高比率的世界分布成分。植物生活性方面,草本种类的比率略高于木本种类,藤本种类较少。藻、草丛群落之间的物种多样性差异不显著。TWINSPAN和DCA分析显示,河岸植物群藻可分为6大类群,这些类群呈现沿湿度梯度方向  相似文献
8.
长白山北坡河岸带群落植物区系分析   总被引:20,自引:2,他引:18       下载免费PDF全文
对吉林省二道白河河岸带植物区系的研究结果表明,河岸带植被中共有维管束植物68科169属288种,其中包括蕨类植物11科16属26种,种子植物57科153属262种.种子植物中,裸子植物3科6属9种,被子植物54科147属253种;被子植物中,双子叶植物45科118属212种,单子叶植物9科29属41种.由此可见二道白河河岸带的植物种类较为丰富.对其中被子植物分布区类型的分析表明,二道白河流域河岸带种子植物区系科、属的分布类型较为丰富,在科级水平上有6个分布类型2个变型,在属级水平上有9个分布类型7个变型.河岸带植物区系呈温带特性,各类温带分布类型117属,占河岸带种子植物153属的76.5%.二道白河流域河岸带植物区系地理联系广泛,与热带植物区系和东亚区系具有一定的联系,但与地中海植物区系的联系甚少.表明河岸带在生物多样性保护中的重要作用.  相似文献
9.
三峡库区消涨带植被重建   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
重建三峡水库消涨带植被对于恢复消涨带功能、维持三峡工程安全和修复长江流域退化生态系统具有十分重要的意义.消涨带可分为自然消涨带和人工消涨带,自然消涨带及其植被是流域生态系统的组成部分,具有重要的生态、社会和经济价值.人为控制水位涨落而形成的人工消涨带很少有植被覆盖,属于退化的生态系统.三峡消涨带包括三峡自然消涨带和三峡水库消涨带,三峡工程的建设将淹没三峡自然消涨带及其植被并产生没有植被覆盖的三峡水库消涨带.作者认为开发利用三峡水库消涨带土地资源,发展库区经济将导致库区生态环境恶化、危及三峡工程安全且不利于长江流域生态系统的健康.解决三峡水库消涨带问题的关键是重建消涨带植被,并恢复其功能.该文从水利建设与环境保护的关系、三峡水库管理与库区景观建设的需要、消涨带功能恢复与流域生态系统康复和促进水库消涨带研究的深入阐述了开展三峡水库消涨带植被重建的必要性.  相似文献
10.
Despite growing attention concerning therole of dissolved organic matter (DOM) inelement cycling of forest ecosystems, thecontrols of concentrations and fluxes of bothdissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen(DON) under field conditions in forest soilsremain only poorly understood. The goal ofthis project is to measure the concentrations and fluxes of DON, NH4 +, NO3 and DOC in bulkprecipitation, throughfall, forest floorleachates and soil solutions of a deciduousstand in the Steigerwald region (northernBavaria, Germany). The DOC and DONconcentrations and fluxes were highest inleachates originating from the Oa layer of theforest floor (73 mg C L–1, 2.3 mg NL–1 and about 200–350 kg C, 8–10 kg Nha–1 yr–1). They were observed to behighly variable over time and decreased in themineral topsoil (17 mg C L–1, 0.6 mg NL–1 and about 50–90 kg C, 2.0 to 2.4 kg Nha–1 yr–1). The annual variability ofDOC and DON concentrations and subsequentialDOC/DON ratios was substantial in allsolutions. The DOC and DON concentrations inthroughfall were positively correlated withtemperature. The DOC and DON concentrationsdid not show seasonality in the forest floorand mineral soil. Concentrations were notrelated to litterfall dynamics but didcorrespond in part to the input of DOC and DONfrom throughfall. The throughfall contributionto the overall element fluxes was higher forDON than for DOC. Concentrations and fluxes ofDON were significantly correlated to DOC inthroughfall and the Oi layer. However, thecorrelation was weak in Oa leachates. Inaddition, seasonal and annual variation ofDOC/DON ratios indicated different mechanismsand release rates from the forest floor forboth components. The concentrations of DOC andDON in forest floor leachates were in mostcases dependent neither on the pH value orionic strength of the solution, nor on thewater flux or temperature changes. As aconsequence, the DOC and DON fluxes from theforest floor into the mineral soil werelargely dependent on the water flux if annualand biweekly time scales are considered.  相似文献
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