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1.
On a measure of lack of fit in time series models   总被引:56,自引:0,他引:56  
LJUNG  G. M.; BOX  G. E. P. 《Biometrika》1978,65(2):297-303
2.
运用改进单纯形法拟合Logistic曲线的研究   总被引:38,自引:0,他引:38  
Logistic方程是研究有限空间内种群增长规律的重要工具之一本文运用改进单纯形法最优拟合Logistic曲线,结果表明改进单纯形法具有较强的拟合非线性方程的能力,对生物实验及生态、生理学中诸多非线性曲线的参数估计具有普遍意义.  相似文献
3.
Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use plant volatiles when foraging for food. In response to herbivory, plants emit a blend that may be quantitatively and qualitatively different from the blend emitted when intact. This induced volatile blend alters the interactions of the plant with its environment. We review recent developments regarding the induction mechanism as well as the ecological consequences in a multitrophic and evolutionary context. It has been well established that carnivores (predators and parasitoids) are attracted by the volatiles induced by their herbivorous victims. This concerns an active plant response. In the case of attraction of predators, this is likely to result in a fitness benefit to the plant, because through consumption a predator removes the herbivores from the plant. However, the benefit to the plant is less clear when parasitoids are attracted, because parasitisation does usually not result in an instantaneous or in a complete termination of consumption by the herbivore. Recently, empirical evidence has been obtained that shows that the plant's response can increase plant fitness, in terms of seed production, due to a reduced consumption rate of parasitized herbivores. However, apart from a benefit from attracting carnivores, the induced volatiles can have a serious cost because there is an increasing number of studies that show that herbivores can be attracted. However, this does not necessarily result in settlement of the herbivores on the emitting plant. The presence of cues from herbivores and/or carnivores that indicate that the plant is a competitor- and/or enemy-dense space, may lead to an avoidance response. Thus, the benefit of emission of induced volatiles is likely to depend on the prevailing faunal composition. Whether plants can adjust their response and influence the emission of the induced volatiles, taking the prevalent environmental conditions into account, is an interesting question that needs to be addressed. The induced volatiles may also affect interactions of the emitting plant with its neighbours, e.g., through altered competitive ability or by the neighbour exploiting the emitted information.Major questions to be addressed in this research field comprise mechanistic aspects, such as the identification of the minimally effective blend of volatiles that explains the attraction of carnivores to herbivore-infested plants, and evolutionary aspects such as the fitness consequences of induced volatiles. The elucidation of mechanistic aspects is important for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions. For instance, an important tool to address ecological and evolutionary aspects would be to have plant pairs that differ in only a single trait. Such plants are likely to become available in the near future as a result of mechanistic studies on signal-transduction pathways and an increased interest in molecular genetics.  相似文献
4.
Maximum likelihood estimation via the ECM algorithm: A general framework   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
MENG  XIAO-LI; RUBIN  DONALD B. 《Biometrika》1993,80(2):267-278
5.
Ecological immunology: life history trade-offs and immune defense in birds   总被引:22,自引:2,他引:20  
There has been considerable recent interest in the effects oflife-history decisions on immunocompetence in birds. If immunocompetenceis limited by available resources, then trade-offs between investmentin life-history components and investment in immunocompetencecould be important in determining optimal life-history traits.For this to be true: (1) immunocompetence must be limited byresources, (2) investment in life-history components must benegatively correlated with immunocompetence, and (3) immunocompetencemust be positively correlated with fitness. To gather such empiricaldata, ecologists need to be able to measure immunocompetence.We review techniques used to measure immunocompetence and howthey are applied by ecologists. We also consider the componentsof the immune system that constitute immunocompetence and evaluatethe possible consequences of measuring immunocompetence in differentways. We then review the empirical evidence for life-historytrade-offs involving immune defense. We conclude that thereis some evidence suggesting that immunocompetence is limitedby resources and that investment in certain life-history componentsreduces immunocompetence. However, the evidence that immunocompetenceis related to fitness is circumstantial at present, althoughconsistent with the hypothesis that immunocompetence and fitnessare positively correlated. We argue that future work needs toexamine the fitness effects of variation in immunocompetenceand suggest that artificial selection experiments offer a potentiallyimportant tool for addressing this issue.  相似文献
6.
植物生活史型的多样性及动态分析   总被引:22,自引:11,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
主要阐述了植物生活史型的基本定义和基本模式。根据植物的生态幅(Ecological amplitude)、适合度(Fitness)和能量分配格局将植物生活史型划分出V生活史型、S生活史型和c生活史型3个基本类型以及VS生活史型、SV生活史型、cS生活史型、Sc生活史型等6个具有混合特征的过渡类型。文中分析了权衡(丁rade—off)植物生活史各阶段的能量需求,使之合理地进行能量分配,进而使植物生活史型获得最佳的繁殖和存活效益以及最大的适合度的重要性,指出韧生代谢和次生代谢增值物生活史型及其生活史型之间相互转换的密切关系。韧生代谢物质主要用于营养生长,次生代谢物质主要用于促进繁育和拮抗环境胁迫。植物生活史型在特定时空中依生境的连续变化而发生相互转换,呈现出具动态特征的植物生活史型诺。提出了植物生活史型的形成机制,即生境中的资源状况和干扰程度构成了环境筛的径度,进而形成选择压力,以使植物按需分配能量,合成初级代谢产物或次级代谢产物来应对选择压力,形成自身的生态幅和适应对策,最终与生境相互作用过程中表现出的适合度来表征相应的生活史型。还提出了植物生活史型之间相互转化的机制,即每一种植物生活史型均有与该生活史型相对应的生境类型、选择压力、代谢物质和生活史对策,由于时空的连续变化,生境类型也发生过渡性变化,形成过渡类型(ED、DE、DF、FD),因而导致选择压力、代谢物质、生活史对策也发生过渡性变化,形成过渡类型LM、ML、MH、HM、KR、RK、RT、TR、BP、PB、PA、AP,最终通过VS、SV、SC、CS等过渡类型的形成而实现植物生活史型之间的相互转换。文中以高山红景天(Rhodiola sachalinensis)等5种植物生活史型谱为例,分析了各植物生活史型谱的动态特征并指出:V生活史型的植物因营养体较为发达、寿命较长,且能通过正常的有性生殖繁衍后代,通常都能产生稳定种群;以S生活史型为主的植物,因台子中含有来自双亲的两套基因,故有性生殖过程能产生较多遗传性不同的后代,使种群的适应环境变化的能力加强,因而容易形成爆发种群;以c生活史型为主的植物,其遗传物质与母体完全相同,故种群适应环境变化的能力较弱,因而容易导致种群濒危。  相似文献
7.
小菜蛾对阿维菌素的抗性遗传方式 和相对适合度研究   总被引:21,自引:2,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
 就小菜蛾Plutella xylostella对阿维菌素的抗性遗传方式和抗性品系的相对适合度进行了研究。室内选育的阿维菌素抗性品系与同源的敏感品系杂交、F1代自交、F1代与亲本回交,结果表明:杂交后的显性度(D)分别为-0.64和-0.52,说明小菜蛾对阿维菌素的抗性是常染色体、不完全隐性遗传;χ2检验证实,可能是多基因控制的抗性遗传。杂交F1代乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)、羧酸酯酶(CarE)和谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)活性比抗性亲本有所降低,F2代及回交后代三种酶的活性继续降低。种群适合度研究表明,抗性品系相对于敏感品系有0.84的适合度。  相似文献
8.
城市生态系统适宜度的时空对比分析   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
本文将生态位适宜度理论引入城市生态系统的研究,在前人研究的綦础上改进了城市生态位适宜度的数学模型,考虑了权重的影响。选取GDP增长率、人均住房使用面积、每平方千米SO2排放量、每万人拥有医生数、每万人拥有高等学校在校学生数等21项经济、社会、环境、生态、健康、教育因子构建城市生态适宜度的指标体系,并以我国35个省级和副省级城市为例,计算出并个从1996年到2000年5种生态位适宜度值,分析探讨其时空变化规律,得出以下结论:(1)城市生态位适宜度既有空间差异、时间差异,又有因侧重的生态因子不同耐导致的差异。(2)在五种生态位适宜度中,32个城市的基础设施生态位最低,27个城市的环境生态位最高。经济和收入、生态环境、基础设施、健康和教育、平均生态位最高的城市均是深圳,环境生态位最低的是石家庄,基础设施生态位最低的是银川,经济和收入生态位、健康和教育生态位、平均生态位最低的都是贵阳。  相似文献
9.
植物生活史对策的进化   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
班勇 《生态学杂志》1995,14(3):33-39
植物生活史对策的进化班勇(中国林业科学院林业研究所,北京100091)EvolutionofLifeHistoryStrategyinPlants¥BanYong(ResearchInstituteofForestry,ChineseAcademyo...  相似文献
10.
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